Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2003 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2003 - History

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Major Event/ Sports /Nobel Prizes/Pulitzer Prizes/Academy/ Popular Movies/ Popular Books /Popular Television Shows/ Popular Music/ Major Events of 2002

  • Major Events of 2002
    • Shuttle Expodes on Reentry
    • US Invades Iraq
    • Blackout in Northeast


  • MLB: 2003 World Series
    Florida Marlins win 4-2 against New York Yankees
    - Oct 18...Florida 3 at New York 2
    - Oct 19...Florida 1 at New York 6
    - Oct 21...New York 6 at Florida 1
    - Oct 22...New York 0 at Florida 1
    - Oct 23...New York 4 at Florida 6
    - Oct 25...Florida 2 at New York 0
  • NFL: Super Bowl XXXVII
    Tampa Bay Buccaneers win 48-21 against the Oakland Raiders
    - Super Bowl Box Score:
    Tampa Bay...3 17 14 14-48
    Oakland........3 0 6 12-21
  • Professional Golf
    Men's Majors winners - The Masters: Mike Weir... -7, margin of 2 (playoff)
    - US Open: Jim Furyk... -8 to par
    - British Open: Ben Curtis... -1 to par
    - PGA Championship: Shaun Micheel... -4 to par
    Women's Majors winners
    - Kraft Nabisco Championship: Patricia Meunier-Lebouc... 70-68-70-73--281
    - US Women's Open: Hilary Lunke... -1 (PO)
    - McDonald's LPGA Championship: Annika Sörenstam
    - Weetabix Women's British Open: Annika Sörenstam

Popular Songs

1 50 Cent -In Da Club
2 R. Kelly- Ignition
3 Sean Paul -Get Busy
4 Beyonce feat.- Jay-Z Crazy In Love
5 3 Doors Down -When I'm Gone
6 matchbox twenty-Unwell
7 Chingy Right- Thurr
8 Aaliyah -Miss You
9 Kid Rock feat. Sheryl Crow -Picture

Popular Movies

1. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King New Line $1,119,929,521
2. Finding Nemo Disney / Pixar $867,893,978[2]
3. The Matrix Reloaded Warner Bros. $742,128,461
4. Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Disney $654,264,015
5. Bruce Almighty Universal $484,592,874
6. The Last Samurai Warner Bros. $456,758,981
7. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines Warner Bros. / Columbia $433,371,112
8. The Matrix Revolutions Warner Bros. $427,343,298
9. X2 Fox $407,711,549
10. Bad Boys II Columbia $273,339,556

  • Best Picture: The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King
  • Best Director: Peter Jackson
  • Best actor in a leading role: Sean Penn for Mystic River
  • Best actress in a leading role: Charlize Theron for Monster
  • Best actor in a supporting role: Tim Robbins for Mystic River
  • Best actress in a supporting role: Renée Zellweger for Cold Mountain

Grammy Awards

  • Record of the Year: "Don't Know Why" - Norah Jones
  • Song of the Year: "Don't Know Why" - Norah Jones, writer Jessie Harris
  • Album of Year: "Come Away With Me" - Norah Jones
  • Best New Artist: Norah Jones

Nobel Prizes


  • Peace: Shirin Ebadi (Iran) "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
  • Physiology or Medicine: Paul Lauterbur & Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
  • Economic Sciences: Robert F. Engle (USA) & Clive W. J. Granger (UK) "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility or common trends"
  • Chemistry: Peter Agre & Roderick MacKinnon "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"
  • Physics: Alexei Alexeevich Abrikosov, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg & Anthony James Leggett "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
  • Literature: John Maxwell Coetzee (South Africa - English)

Pulitzer Prizes

  • Public Service: The Boston Globe
  • National Reporting: Alan Miller & Kevin Sack, Los Angeles Times
  • International Reporting: Kevin Sullivan & Mary Jordan, Washington Post
  • Editorial Writing: Cornelia Grumman, Chicago Tribune
  • Editorial Cartooning: David Horsey, Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  • Photography: Don Bartletti, Los Angeles Times
  • Commentary: Colbert I. King, Washington Post
  • Criticism: Stephen Hunter, Washington Post
  • Feature Writing: Sonia Nazario, Los Angeles Times
  • Beat Reporting: Diane K. Sugg, Baltimore Sun
  • Explanatory Reporting: Staff, Wall Street Journal
  • Investigative Reporting: Clifford J. Levy, New York Times
  • Breaking News: Staff, Eagle-Tribune (Lawrence, MA)
  • Fiction: Jeffrey Eugenides, Middlesex
  • Drama: Nilo Cruz, Anna In The Tropics
  • Biography/Autobiography: Robert A. Caro, Master of the Senate
  • History: Rick Atkinson, An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943
  • Poetry: Paul Muldoon, Moy Sand and Gravel
  • General Nonfiction: Samantha Power, "A Problem From Hell": America and the Age of Genocide
  • Music: John Adams, On the Transmigration of Souls

Press release

Researchers use data in the form of time series, i.e., chronological sequences of observations, when estimating relationships and testing hypotheses from economic theory. Such time series show the development of GDP, prices, interest rates, stock prices, etc. During the 1980s, this year’s Laureates devised new statistical methods for dealing with two key properties of many economic time series: time-varying volatility and nonstationarity.

On financial markets, random fluctuations over time – volatility – are particularly significant because the value of shares, options and other financial instruments depends on their risk. Fluctuations can vary considerably over time turbulent periods with large fluctuations are followed by calmer periods with small fluctuations. Despite such time-varying volatility, in want of a better alternative, researchers used to work with statistical methods that presuppose constant volatility. Robert Engle’s discovery was therefore a major breakthrough. He found that the concept of autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) accurately captures the properties of many time series and developed methods for statistical modeling of time-varying volatility. His ARCH models have become indispensable tools not only for researchers, but also for analysts on financial markets, who use them in asset pricing and in evaluating portfolio risk.

Most macroeconomic time series follow a stochastic trend, so that a temporary disturbance in, say, GDP has a long-lasting effect. These time series are called nonstationary they differ from stationary series which do not grow over time, but fluctuate around a given value. Clive Granger demonstrated that the statistical methods used for stationary time series could yield wholly misleading results when applied to the analysis of nonstationary data. His significant discovery was that specific combinations of nonstationary time series may exhibit stationarity, thereby allowing for correct statistical inference. Granger called this phenomenon cointegration. He developed methods that have become invaluable in systems where short-run dynamics are affected by large random disturbances and long-run dynamics are restricted by economic equilibrium relationships. Examples include the relations between wealth and consumption, exchange rates and price levels, and short and long-term interest rates.

Read more about this year’s prize

Robert F. Engle, born in 1942 (60 years), in Syracuse, NY, USA (American citizen) Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1969 Michael Armellino Professor of Management of Financial Services at New York University, NY, USA.

Clive W. J. Granger, born 1934 (69 years), in Swansea, Wales (British citizen) Ph.D. from University of Nottingham in 1959 emeritus Professor of Economics at University of California at San Diego, USA.

The Prize amount: SEK 10 million, will be shared equally among the Laureates.

Contact persons: Katarina Werner, Information assistant,
phone +46 8 673 95 29, and Eva Krutmeijer, Head of information, phone +46 8 673 95 95,
+46 709 84 66 38,

To cite this section
MLA style: Press release. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Fri. 18 Jun 2021. <>

Learn more

Nobel Prizes 2020

Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.

    – the Tampa Bay Buccaneers (NFC) won 48–21 over the Oakland Raiders (AFC)
    • Location: San Diego Stadium
    • Attendance: 67,603
    • MVP: Dexter Jackson, S (Tampa Bay)
    • The Ohio State Buckeyes won 31-24 over the Miami Hurricanes (double overtime) to win BCS National Championship
      • Men's all-around champions: Paul Hamm, US, Yang Wei, China
      • Women's all-around champion: Svetlana Khorkina, Russia
      • Men's team competition champion: China
      • Women's team competition champion: US
        – host nation France wins a tournament marred by tragedy after Cameroon player Marc-Vivien Foé collapsed and died during a semifinal match. – AC Milan wins 3-2 on penalties over Juventus, after a 0-0 draw at Old Trafford. This was AC Milan’s 6th European Cup. – FC Porto wins 3-2 in the final against Celtic, after extra time, with a silver goal by Derlei. This is Porto’s first UEFA Cup title. – AC Milan beats FC Porto 1-0, winning the cup for the fourth time. – Boca Juniors win 3-1 on penalties over AC Milan, after a 1-1 draw at the end of extra time. This is Boca Juniors’ third cup. – Germany wins the final against Sweden 2-1 after extra time.
        • The Brisbane Lions win the 107th AFL premiership by defeating Collingwood 20.14 (134) to 12.12 (84) in the 2003 AFL Grand Final. The Lions’ win gives them the first premiership “hat-trick” since Melbournein 1955, 1956and 1957. awarded to Nathan Buckley (Collingwood), Adam Goodes (Sydney Swans) and Mark Ricciuto (Adelaide Crows) awarded to Michael Voss (Brisbane Lions)
        • August 10: On a rainswept Arena Joondalup, East Perth score only 0.9 (9) against deadly rivals West Perth. It is the first goalless score in WAFL/WANFL/Westar Rules football since West Perth themselves kicked 0.10 (10) against soon-to-be-defunct Midland Junction in May 1916. [1]
        • April 4 – Sammy Sosa hits his 500th career home run off Cincinnati Reds pitcher Scott Sullivan in the seventh inning at Great American Ball Park, becoming only the eighteenth player in Major League Baseball history to hit 500 or more home runs, as well as the first Hispanic to do so.
        • May 5 – Matt Stairs’ home run off Houston Astros pitcher Wade Miller was estimated at 461 feet, making it the longest home run in the history of Minute Maid Park.
        • May 11 – Rafael Palmeiro hit his 500th career home run off Cleveland Indians pitcher David Elder becoming only the 19th player in Major League Baseball history to hit 500 or more home runs.
        • June 11 – Houston Astro pitcher Roy Oswalt started a no-hitter against the New York Yankees on June 11. Oswalt left after one inning, and five more Astros continued to no-hit the Yankees. Peter Munro pitched 2? innings, Kirk Saarloos pitched 1? innings, Brad Lidge pitched two innings, Octavio Dotel pitched one inning in which he recorded four strikeouts and Billy Wagner pitched a perfect ninth to close out a six-pitcher no-hitter that resulted in 13 strikeouts and an 8-0 victory over the Yankees.
        • June 13 – New York YankeeRoger Clemens becomes the 21st pitcher in history to win 300 games and only the 3rd pitcher to record 4,000 career strikeouts as he defeats the St. Louis Cardinals 5-2.
        • July 29 – Bill Mueller becomes the only player in major league history to hit two grand slams in a single game from opposite sides of the plate. He in fact hit three home runs in that game, and the two grand slams were in consecutive at-bats. – The Florida Marlins win 4 games to 2 over the New York Yankees.
          – The San Antonio Spurs win their second NBA title, defeating the New Jersey Nets 4 games to 2. Tim Duncan, who nearly scores a quadruple-double in the deciding Game 6, is named Finals MVP. –
            win 81-78 over the Kansas Jayhawks
            win 73-68 over the Tennessee Lady Vols
          • May 9 to May 18 – African Amateur Boxing Championships held in Yaoundé, Cameroon
          • July 6 to July 13 – World Amateur Boxing Championships held in Bangkok
          • August 8 to August 15 – Pan American Games held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
          • September 13 – Shane Mosley conquers the WBA and WBC world Jr. Middleweight titles with a 12-round unanimous decision over Oscar De La Hoya in rematch of their 2000 bout
          • October 4 to October 13 – All-Africa Games held in Abuja, Nigeria
          • February 27 – Darren Flutie retires
          • November 16 – the Edmonton Eskimos win the 91st Grey Cup game, defeating the Montreal Alouettes 34-22 at Mosaic Stadium in Regina.
          • November 22 – Université Laval win the Vanier Cup, defeating St. Mary's University 14-7.
            – Australia defeats England 4-1
          • May – West Indies defeats Australia by scoring a world record 418 runs in the fourth innings – Australia defeats India in the final by 125 runs
          • Domestic competitions
              (England and Wales) – Sussex CCC (Australia) – New South Wales
          • First Twenty20 Cup series held in England and won by Surrey CCC
              • Women's Final: (April 12) United States (Debbie McCormick) 5-3 Canada (Colleen Jones)
              • Men's Final: (April 13) Canada (Randy Ferbey) 10-6 Switzerland (Ralph Stöckli)
                • Men's champion: Evgeni Plushenko, Russia
                • Ladies’ champion: Michelle Kwan, United States
                • Pair skating champions: Shen Xue and Zhao Hongbo, China
                • Ice dancing champions: Shae-Lynn Bourne and Victor Kraatz, Canada
                  • All-Ireland Camogie Champion: Tipperary
                  • National Camogie League: Cork
                    – Tyrone 0-12 defeated Armagh 0-9 – Tyrone 0-21 defeated Laois 1-8
                  • All-Ireland Senior Football Champion: Mayo
                  • National Football League: Laois
                    – Kilkenny 1-14 died Cork 1-11 –
                    , Leszno, Poland
                    • Open Class Winner: Holger Karow, Germany Glider: Schempp-Hirth Nimbus-4
                    • 18-metre Class Winner: Wolfgang Janowitsch, Austria Glider: Schempp-Hirth Ventus-2
                    • 15-metre Class Winner: John Coutts, New Zealand Glider: Alexander Schleicher ASW 27
                    • Standard Class Winner: Andrew Davis, UK Glider: Schempp-Hirth Discus 2
                    • World Class Winner: Sebastian Kawa, Poland Glider: PZL PW-5
                        – Mike Weir becomes the first Canadian and the first left-handed golfer to win The Masters. He defeats Len Mattiace on the first playoff hole. – Jim Furyk. Tournament takes place at Olympia Fields, and Furyk wins his first major by 3 shots. – Ben Curtis, an outsider, wins by a single shot from Thomas Björn and Vijay Singh at Royal St. George's. – Shaun Micheel, another outside, wins by 2 shots at Oak Hill Country Club.
                      • Australia – Melbourne Cup won by Makybe Diva :
                          won by Wando won by Wando won by Wando
                        • Wando becomes the seventh horse to win the Canadian Triple Crown.
                          – Refuse To Bend – Kris Kin – Brian Boru
                          won by Funny Cide won by Funny Cide won by Empire Maker
                          – Pleasantly Perfect – Adoration – Islington – Action This Day – Halfbridled – Six Perfections – Cajun Beat – High Chaparral and Johar dead-heated
                          as the NHL’s leading scorer during the regular season: Peter Forsberg, Colorado Avalanche. for the NHL’s Most Valuable Player: Peter Forsberg, Colorado Avalanche. – New Jersey Devils win 4 games to 3 over the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim. The Conn Smythe Trophy as the playoffs MVP is won by Jean-Sébastien Giguère of Anaheim.
                          • Men’s champion: Canada defeats Sweden 3-2.
                          • Junior Men’s champion: Russia win 3-2 over Canada.
                          • Women’s champion: tournament scheduled for Beijing, China cancelled due to the outbreak of SARS.
                          • Final: Kitchener Rangers 6-3 Hull Olympiques.
                            win the Mann Cup. Athletics win the Minto Cup
                          • In May, Canada wins the first World Indoor Lacrosse Championship, defeating the Iroquois Nation in the final by a score of 21-4.
                          • The Toronto Rock win the Champion's Cup over the Rochester Knighthawks.
                          • The Long Island Lizards win the Steinfeld Cup over the Baltimore Bayhawks. Women’s Lacrosse team defeats Middlebury College to win the Division III National Championship, 11-9.

                          The following is a list of major noteworthy MMA events during 2003 in chronological order.


                          Alfred Nobel ( listen ( help · info ) ) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. [10] He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. [11]

                          In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. It was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. [12] On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old. [13]

                          Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. [14] [15] To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. [16] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes. [17] [18] Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897. [19] The executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes. [20]

                          Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated. These were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. [21] The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. [16] In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved.

                          Nobel Foundation Edit

                          Formation of Foundation Edit

                          According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity. The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize. [ citation needed ]

                          The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. [22] In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, and according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archive, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". [23] Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates. [24] [25] In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953). [26] Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million). [27]

                          According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions. An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors. [27]

                          Foundation capital and cost Edit

                          The capital of the Nobel Foundation today is invested 50% in shares, 20% bonds and 30% other investments (e.g. hedge funds or real estate). The distribution can vary by 10 percent. [28] At the beginning of 2008, 64% of the funds were invested mainly in American and European stocks, 20% in bonds, plus 12% in real estate and hedge funds. [29]

                          In 2011, the total annual cost was approximately 120 million krona, with 50 million krona as the prize money. Further costs to pay institutions and persons engaged in giving the prizes were 27.4 million krona. The events during the Nobel week in Stockholm and Oslo cost 20.2 million krona. The administration, Nobel symposium, and similar items had costs of 22.4 million krona. The cost of the Economic Sciences prize of 16.5 Million krona is paid by the Sveriges Riksbank. [28]

                          Inaugural Nobel prizes Edit

                          Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently, they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions.

                          The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize. [30] [31] In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize". [32] The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van 't Hoff. [33] Van 't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics. [34] [35]

                          The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists, and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to be awarded. [36] Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet. [37] The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year. [38] [39]

                          The first Nobel Peace Prize went to the Swiss Jean Henri Dunant for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention, and jointly given to French pacifist Frédéric Passy, founder of the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization.

                          Second World War Edit

                          In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes. [40] They were all later able to receive the diploma and medal. [41] Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace. [42]

                          During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the Germans when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden. [43] These members kept the work of the Committee going, but did not award any prizes. In 1944, the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again. [40]

                          Prize in Economic Sciences Edit

                          In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honour of Alfred Nobel. The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes". [44] [45] The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes. [46]

                          The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes, the main difference being who can make nominations for each of them. [47]

                          Nominations Edit

                          Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award. [47] [48] The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names. [49] The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize. [50] [51]

                          Selection Edit

                          The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions. [52] The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote. [53] A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals. [54]

                          Posthumous nominations Edit

                          Although posthumous nominations are not presently permitted, individuals who died in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented. [55] On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously. [8] The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged. [56]

                          Recognition time lag Edit

                          Nobel's will provided for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries. [57] However, some of those early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer. [58] To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time. [59] [60] [61] According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion 'the previous year' is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident." [60]

                          The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement. [62] [63] The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example, 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts. [64] [65] However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events. [66] For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations. [67] Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords. [68]

                          Awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution. [69] [70] Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died. [71] [72] [73]

                          Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events. [74] [75] The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), at the auditorium of the University of Oslo (1947–1989), and at Oslo City Hall (1990–present). [76]

                          The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. [75] [77] At first, King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said [ by whom? ] that he changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden. [78]

                          Nobel Banquet Edit

                          After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held in the Blue Hall at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Norway at the Oslo Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, on occasion the Swedish prime minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend.

                          Nobel lecture Edit

                          According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize. [79] The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format. [80] These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize, but some have happened even later. For example, US President Theodore Roosevelt received the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office. [81] The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates. [82]

                          Medals Edit

                          The Nobel Foundation announced on 30 May 2012 that it had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Between 1902 and 2010, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint), Sweden's oldest company, which ceased operations in 2011 after 107 years. In 2011, the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. [83]

                          Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal. [84] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design. [85]

                          All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then, they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about 175 grams (0.386 lb) for each medal. The diameter is 66 millimetres (2.6 in) and the thickness varies between 5.2 millimetres (0.20 in) and 2.4 millimetres (0.094 in). [86] Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft. [87] [88] [89] During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, Hungarian chemist (and Nobel laureate himself) George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast. [90]

                          Diplomas Edit

                          Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden, or in the case of the peace prize, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them. [84] The diploma contains a picture and text in Swedish which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas. [91] [92]

                          Award money Edit

                          The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded. [84] The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880,000 SEK per prize (c. 2.6 million SEK altogether, US$350,000 today). In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million). [93] [94] In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK. [95] If two laureates share the prize in a category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others. [96] [97] [98] It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes. [99] [100]

                          Controversial recipients Edit

                          Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize. [101] [102] [103]

                          Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ. This led to the resignation of two Norwegian Nobel Committee members. [104] Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities. [105] Critics sympathetic to the North announced that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite, responsible for widening the war. Those hostile to the North and what they considered its deceptive practices during negotiations were deprived of a chance to criticise Lê Đức Thọ, as he declined the award. [50] [106] The satirist and musician Tom Lehrer has remarked that "political satire became obsolete when Henry Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." [107]

                          Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine. [50] [108] Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned. [109] Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers. [110]

                          Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009. [111] Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President of the United States, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months. [112] Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award, or worthy of the company in which it would place him. [113] [114] Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not secured the achievements to yet merit such an accolade. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a left-wing bias. [115]

                          The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art". He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure". [116] [117] The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work. [118] This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric. [119]

                          In 1949, the neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy. The previous year, Dr. Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize. [120] [121]

                          Overlooked achievements Edit

                          Although Mahatma Gandhi, an icon of nonviolence in the 20th century, was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize five times, in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, and a few days before he was assassinated on 30 January 1948, he was never awarded the prize. [122] [123] [124]

                          In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided to make no award that year on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate". [122] [125]

                          In 1989, this omission was publicly regretted, when the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize, the chairman of the committee said that it was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi". [126]

                          Geir Lundestad, 2006 Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee, said,

                          "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace Prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question." [127]

                          Other high-profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been overlooked. An article in Foreign Policy magazine identified seven people who "never won the prize, but should have". The list: Mahatma Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, Corazon Aquino, and Liu Xiaobo. [124] Liu Xiaobo would go on to win the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize while imprisoned.

                          In 1965, UN Secretary General U Thant was informed by the Norwegian Permanent Representative to the UN that he would be awarded that year's prize and asked whether or not he would accept. He consulted staff and later replied that he would. At the same time, Chairman Gunnar Jahn of the Nobel Peace prize committee, lobbied heavily against giving U Thant the prize and the prize was at the last minute awarded to UNICEF. The rest of the committee all wanted the prize to go to U Thant, for his work in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis, ending the war in the Congo, and his ongoing work to mediate an end to the Vietnam War. The disagreement lasted three years and in 1966 and 1967 no prize was given, with Gunnar Jahn effectively vetoing an award to U Thant. [128] [129]

                          The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism. [130] [131] The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors. [132] This tendency towards European authors still leaves many European writers on a list of notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize, including Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, J. R. R. Tolkien, Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, Karel Čapek, the New World's Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Mark Twain, and Africa's Chinua Achebe. [133]

                          Candidates can receive multiple nominations the same year. Gaston Ramon received a total of 155 [134] nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the last year with public nomination data for that award as of 2016 [update] . He died in 1963 without being awarded. Pierre Paul Émile Roux received 115 [135] nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld received 84 [136] in physics. These are the three most nominated scientists without awards in the data published as of 2016 [update] . [137] Otto Stern received 79 [138] nominations in physics 1925–1943 before being awarded in 1943. [139]

                          The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial. [140] When a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt. [141] [142] According to one of the nominees for the prize in physics, the three person limit deprived him and two other members of his team of the honor in 2013: the team of Carl Hagen, Gerald Guralnik, and Tom Kibble published a paper in 1964 that gave answers to how the cosmos began, but did not share the 2013 Physics Prize awarded to Peter Higgs and François Englert, who had also published papers in 1964 concerning the subject. All five physicists arrived at the same conclusion, albeit from different angles. Hagen contends that an equitable solution is to either abandon the three limit restriction, or expand the time period of recognition for a given achievement to two years. [143]

                          Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. The Economics Prize was not awarded to Fischer Black, who died in 1995, when his co-author Myron Scholes received the honor in 1997 for their landmark work on option pricing along with Robert C. Merton, another pioneer in the development of valuation of stock options. In the announcement of the award that year, the Nobel committee prominently mentioned Black's key role.

                          Political subterfuge may also deny proper recognition. Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn, may have been denied a share of Hahn's 1944 Nobel Chemistry Award due to having fled Germany when the Nazis came to power. [144] The Meitner and Strassmann roles in the research was not fully recognised until years later, when they joined Hahn in receiving the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award.

                          Emphasis on discoveries over inventions Edit

                          Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind". [145] He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics". Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society. [146] [147]

                          Gender disparity Edit

                          In terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion have been awarded to women. Out of 210 laureates in Physics, 181 in Chemistry and 216 in Medicine between 1901 and 2018, there were only three female laureates in physics, five in chemistry and 12 in medicine. [148] [149] [150] [151] Factors proposed to contribute to the discrepancy between this and the roughly equal human sex ratio include biased nominations, fewer women than men being active in the relevant fields, Nobel Prizes typically being awarded decades after the research was done (reflecting a time when gender bias in the relevant fields was greater), a greater delay in awarding Nobel Prizes for women's achievements making longevity a more important factor for women (one cannot be nominated to the Nobel Prize posthumously), and a tendency to omit women from jointly awarded Nobel Prizes. [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] Despite these factors, Marie Curie is to date the only person awarded Nobel Prizes in two different sciences (Physics in 1903, Chemistry in 1911) she is one of only three people who have received two Nobel Prizes in sciences (see Multiple laureates below).

                          • Laureates who have received Multiple Nobel Prizes:
                            received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) and Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911). received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954) and Nobel Peace Prize (1962). received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Physics (1956, 1972). received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1958, 1980). received the prize three times. Nobel Peace Prize (1917, 1944, 1963). received the prize twice. Nobel Peace Prize (1954, 1981).
                          • Posthumous Nobel Prizes laureates:
                            received Nobel Prize in Literature (1931). received Nobel Peace Prize (1961). received Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2011).
                          • Married couples to receive Nobel Prizes:[158]
                            , Pierre Curie (along with Henri Becquerel). Received Nobel Prize in Physics (1903). , Frédéric Joliot. Received Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1935). , Carl Cori. Received Nobel Prize in Medicine (1947). , Edvard I. Moser. Received Nobel Prize in Medicine (2014) received Nobel Peace Prize (1982), Gunnar Myrdal received Nobel Prize in Economics Sciences (1974). , Abhijit Banerjee (along with Michael Kremer). Received Nobel Prize in Economics Sciences (2019). [159]

                          Multiple laureates Edit

                          Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium, [160] making her the only person to be awarded a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling was also awarded the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity. [161] Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA. [162] [163]

                          Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars and in 1963 during the year of its centenary. [164] [165] [166] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981. [167]

                          Family laureates Edit

                          The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her. [168] Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf. [169]

                          Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The husband-and-wife team of Gerty Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or Medicine [170] as did the husband-and-wife team of May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser in 2014 (along with John O'Keefe). [171] J. J. Thomson was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that electrons are particles. His son, George Paget Thomson, received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they also have the properties of waves. [172] William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915 for inventing the X-ray crystallography. [173] Niels Bohr was awarded the Physics prize in 1922, as was his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975. [169] [174] Manne Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of Kai Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1981. [169] [175] Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970. [169] C. V. Raman was awarded the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who was awarded the same prize in 1983. [176] [177] Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959 Kornberg's son, Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006. [178] Jan Tinbergen, who was awarded the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize. [169] Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize laureate in 1982, was the wife of Gunnar Myrdal who was awarded the Economics Prize in 1974. [169] Economics laureates Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow were brothers-in-law. Frits Zernike, who was awarded the 1953 Physics Prize, is the great-uncle of 1999 Physics laureate Gerard 't Hooft. [179] In 2019, married couple Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo were awarded the Economics Prize. [180]

                          Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form." [181] Lê Đức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam. [182] George Bernard Shaw attempted to decline the prize money while accepting the 1925 Literature Prize eventually it was agreed to use it to found the Anglo-Swedish Literary Foundation. [183]

                          During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award." [182] The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it back until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf. [184] [185]

                          Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012. [186] Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners, and he was unable to accept the prize in his lifetime.

                          Being a symbol of scientific or literary achievement that is recognisable worldwide, the Nobel Prize is often depicted in fiction. This includes films like The Prize (1963), Nobel Son (2007), and The Wife (2017) about fictional Nobel laureates, as well as fictionalised accounts of stories surrounding real prizes such as Nobel Chor, a 2012 film based on the theft of Rabindranath Tagore's prize. [187] [188]

                          The statue and memorial symbol Planet of Alfred Nobel was opened in Alfred Nobel University of Economics and Law in Dnipro, Ukraine in 2008. On the globe, there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing of military strategic missiles. [189]

                          Despite the symbolism of intellectual achievement, some recipients have embraced unsupported and pseudoscientific concepts, including various health benefits of vitamin C and other dietary supplements, homeopathy, HIV/AIDS denialism, and various claims about race and intelligence. [190] This is sometimes referred to as Nobel disease.

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                          Sources Edit

                          This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from A Complex Formula: Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia, 23, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

                          Nitroglycerin and Dynamite

                          Nitroglycerin was first invented by Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero (1812–1888) in 1846. In its natural liquid state, nitroglycerin is very volatile. Nobel understood this and in 1866 discovered that mixing nitroglycerin with silica would turn the liquid into a malleable paste called dynamite. One advantage that dynamite had over nitroglycerin was that it could be cylinder-shaped for insertion into the drilling holes used for mining.

                          In 1863, Nobel invented the Nobel patent detonator or blasting cap for detonating nitroglycerin. The detonator used a strong shock rather than heat combustion to ignite the explosives. The Nobel Company built the first factory to manufacture nitroglycerin and dynamite.

                          In 1867, Nobel received U.S. patent number 78,317 for his invention of dynamite. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods, Nobel also improved his detonator (blasting cap) so that it could be ignited by lighting a fuse. In 1875, Nobel invented blasting gelatin, which was more stable and powerful than dynamite and patented it in 1876. In 1887, he was granted a French patent for "ballistite," a smokeless blasting powder made from nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. While Ballistite was developed as a substitute for black gunpowder, a variation is used today as a solid fuel rocket propellant.

                          Sporting Highlights for 2002

                          Here are the sporting highlights of the world of sport in 2002. See the Top Earners for 2002. There were a few major world sporting events this year, such as the Winter Olympics, FIFA World Cup and the Commonwealth Games.

                          It was the year of the 19th Winter Olympics, held at Salt Lake City, United States. Norway came out on top winning 13 gold medals, which equaled the ex-Soviet Union's record set during the 1976 Winter Olympics.

                          One of the most craziest events that transpired was the gold medal win by Australian skater Steven Bradbury. Bradbury was well off pace in the semi-final race when three of other competitors crashed into each other allowing him to finish second and qualify for the finals. For an encore, the four skaters, all ahead of him, crashed out again in the final race making him the unlikeliest and the luckiest gold medal winner ever.

                          The Games was marred with several doping disqualifications also witnessed a major judging controversy. After the Russian's were awarded the gold, charges of bribery were leveled against a French judge and his scores were thrown out. Unlike never before, the Canadian team was also awarded a gold medal resulting in two gold medal winners for the event.

                          The Olympics also saw both the Canadian men's and women's ice hockey teams beat the host United States to secure the gold medals.

                          The famous boxing fight between Lennox Lewis and Mike Tyson promoted as "Lewis–Tyson: Is On" happened this year. Lennox won the fight by knockout in the eighth round. The pre-fight press conference brawl which erupted between both fighters and their entourages was a more memorable event that the fight itself, which was named as the "Event of the Year" by "The Ring" magazine.

                          In the Tour de France, Lance Armstrong won his fourth consecutive race, though in 2012 he was stripped of all his wins after doping allegations were proven correct.

                          In English football, Arsenal matched Manchester United to achieve their third Double (FA Cup and league title).

                          The 2002 Laureus World Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year Awards went to motorsport's Michael Schumacher and tennis player Jennifer Capriati.

                          English cricketer Ben Hollioake died aged 24 in a car accident.

                          Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 2002.

                          Date Results
                          Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Thomas Johansson and Jennifer Capriati.
                          Feb Super Bowl held in New Orleans won by New England
                          Feb 8-24 Winter Olympic Games were held in Salt Lake City, USA
                          April Golf Masters won by Tiger Woods (3rd win)
                          May Tennis French Open won by Albert Costa and Serena Williams (USA)
                          May 31 - June 30 FIFA World Cup (Football) tournament was held in Japan & South Korea, won by Brazil.
                          June 13–16 Golf US Open won by Tiger Woods.
                          July the Cycling Tour de France was won by Lance Armstrong (though he was later stripped of this win)
                          July Tennis Wimbledon won by Lleyton Hewitt (Aus) and Serena Williams (USA)
                          July Golf British Open won by Ernie Els
                          July 25 - Aug 4 Commonwealth Games held in Manchester, England.
                          Aug Golf US PGA won by Rich Beem
                          Aug 26 – Sept 8 Tennis US Open won by Pete Sampras and Serena Williams
                          Oct The Baseball World Series won by Anaheim Angels

                          Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

                          If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.

                          Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor and best-selling author, is born

                          On September 29, 1928, Eliezer 𠇎lie” Wiesel, the human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize-winning author of more than 50 books, including “Night,” an internationally acclaimed memoir based on his experiences as a prisoner in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, is born in Sighet, Transylvania (present-day Romania).

                          In May 1944, the Nazis deported 15-year-old Wiesel and his family to Auschwitz, a concentration camp in Poland. Wiesel’s mother and the youngest of his three sisters died at Auschwitz, while he and his father later were moved to another camp, Buchenwald, located in Germany. Wiesel’s father perished at Buchenwald just months before it was liberated by Allied troops in April 1945.

                          Following the war, Wiesel spent time in a French orphanage, studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and went on to work as a journalist in France. In the early 1950s, he broke a self-imposed vow not to speak about the atrocities he witnessed at the concentration camps and penned the first version of “Night” in Yiddish, under the title “Un di Velt Hot Geshvign” (𠇊nd the World Remained Silent”). At the encouragement of Nobel laureate and prominent French writer Francois Mauriac, Wiesel reworked the manuscript in French. However, even with Mauriac’s help in trying to land a book deal, the manuscript was rejected by multiple publishers, who believed few people at the time were interested in reading about the Holocaust. The book was eventually released in 1958 as “La Nuit” an English translation, “Night,” followed in 1960. Although initial sales were sluggish, “Night” was generally well reviewed and over the decades gained an audience, eventually becoming a classic of Holocaust literature that has sold millions of copies and has been translated into more than 30 languages. In 2006, TV talk show host Oprah Winfrey selected “Night” for her famed on-air book club, and traveled with Wiesel to Auschwitz for an episode of her show.

                          Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2003 - History

                          Cambridge University Press
                          0521832470 - Nobel Laureates and Twentieth-Century Physics - by Mauro Dardo

                          Nobel Laureates and Twentieth-Century Physics

                          In this richly illustrated book the author combines history with real science. Using an original approach he presents the major achievements of twentieth-century physics – for example, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, the invention of the transistor and the laser, superconductivity, binary pulsars, and the Bose–Einstein condensate – each as they emerged as the product of the genius of those physicists whose labours, since 1901, have been crowned with a Nobel Prize.

                             Here, in the form of a year-by-year chronicle, biographies and revealing personal anecdotes help bring to life the main events of the past hundred years. The work of the most famous physicists of the twentieth century – great names, such as Bohr, the Curies, Einstein, Fermi, Feynman, Gell-Mann, Heisenberg, Rutherford and Schrödinger – is presented, often in the words and imagery of the prizewinners themselves.

                             The author uses plain language to avoid technical jargon as much as possible. He does not hesitate, however, to explain abstruse theories when necessary. With clear step-by-step explanations and lively down-to-earth examples, this engaging work will be of interest to working scientists, students, and the lay reader curious about the wonders of the universe of science.

                          MAURO DARDO is professor of experimental physics at the newly founded Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont at Alessandria, in Northern Italy. Here from 1992 to 1998 he also served as dean of the faculty of sciences. He studied physics at the University of Turin, and obtained his doctor’s degree there in 1964. Soon afterwards he began his teaching and research career. This took him first to the USA for a one-year study period, and then, in 1980, to Cagliari in Sardinia as professor of physics. Three years later, in 1983, occasion took him back to his alma mater, in Turin, to a post in the Department of Physics. He has taken part in research programmes in a number of different fields of physics, including cosmic rays, elementary particle physics and high-energy astrophysics. His special interests have long lain in the area of history in general – and the history of science, and the wider diffusion of scientific culture, in particular. He lives in a small town, rich in local traditions, in rural Piedmont, close to the border of the ancient marquisate of Monferrato, and within sight of the Alps.

                          Nobel Laureates and
                          Twentieth-Century Physics

                          Mauro Dardo
                          Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale
                          Amedeo Avogadro

                          The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

                          CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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                          This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
                          and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
                          no reproduction of any part may take place without
                          the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

                          Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

                          Typefaces Times NR 10ቩ pt. and Universe     System LATEX 2 e   [TB]

                          A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

                          Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data
                          Dardo, M. (Mauro)
                          Nobel laureates and twentieth-century physics / Mauro Dardo.
                            p.  cm.
                          Includes bibliographical references and index.
                          ISBN 0 521 83247 0 – ISBN 0 521 54008 9 (paperback)
                          1. Physics – History – 20th century. ق. Nobel Prizes. ك. Physicists – Biography.  I. Title.
                          QC7.D27  �
                          530′.09󉎌 – dc22      �

                          ISBN 0 521 83247 0 hardback
                          ISBN 0 521 54008 9 paperback

                          The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content is or will remain appropriate.

                          Preface page ix
                          Acknowledgments x
                          Part I  Introduction
                          1   Introduction 3
                          2   Founding fathers 7
                          3   Highlights of classical physics 17
                          Part II  The triumphs of modern physics (1901�)
                          4   New foundations 33
                          5   The quantum atom 77
                          6   The golden years 125
                          7   The thirties 173
                          8   The nuclear age 213
                          Part III  New frontiers (1951�)
                          9   Wave of inventions 237
                          10   New vistas on the cosmos 279
                          11   The small, the large – the complex 319
                          12   Big physics – small physics 369
                          13   New trends 409
                             Appendix Nobel Prizes for physics 469
                          Glossary of terms 475
                          Notes 495
                          Select bibliography 513
                          Further reading 515
                          Index 517

                          This book is about the Nobel Prizes for physics: how they were awarded each year, and for what particular merit how the discoveries that they have honoured fit into the wider picture of the evolution of twentieth-century physics, enlarged our understanding of nature and, in terms of new technologies, changed and moulded our everyday lives. But above all it is about the prizewinners themselves, how they came to make the contributions to science for which they are renowned and, through personal details and anecdotes, it aims to tell us what sort of people they were, and indeed are.

                             The book is divided into three parts. The first part contains an introductory chapter which includes a short description of the Nobel Prize. Then follow two chapters which deal with classical physics, in so far as it constitutes the roots of modern physics. These chapters, through a rapid historical journey, will present the reader with some fundamental concepts in physics, together with information about the giants of classical science, so taking the reader up to the doorstep of twentieth-century physics.

                             The second and third parts form the core of the book. They contain ten chapters, which, year by year, describe the work for which the awards were given, with short biographical notes on each Nobel laureate. In parallel, in each year, are included concise descriptions of the principal achievements in physics during the year itself. Each chapter begins with an introduction, which summarises the major events during the period in question, and each ends with illustrations and descriptions of sites where the most famous events took place. Finally, the reader will find a glossary of terms which we believe will be of assistance, especially if he or she is a non-specialist. Simple sketches and diagrams will help in understanding certain important concepts.

                             The author has tried wherever possible to use plain language and to avoid technical jargon, whilst nevertheless maintaining scientific and historical rigour.

                             Nobel Laureates and Twentieth-Century Physics is addressed to scientists active in the worlds of research or teaching, to students, both undergraduates and graduates: and also, and by no means least, to the general reader who is eager to venture into the great scientific themes that have distinguished the last hundred years of the history of physics and science in general.

                          This book might never have seen the light of day – at least in this form – without the co-operation and helpfulness of Richard Izard. His particular care has been for the Englishness of the book. Its style owns much to him, as does its readability and its ‘feeling’. I am deeply indebted to him for his constant and skilled assistance.

                             In the first place I wish to record my profound gratitude to all those Nobel prizewinners who have kindly read the pages concerning their Nobel Prizes, and offered me so many helpful criticisms, further information, and practical suggestions for improving the text: Zhores Alferov, Philip Anderson, Aage Bohr, Georges Charpak, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Leon Cooper, Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Riccardo Giacconi, Antony Hewish, Brian Josephson, Wolfgang Ketterle, K. Alex Müller, William Phillips, Heinrich Rorher, Carlo Rubbia, Jack Steinberger, Gerardus ’t Hooft, Charles Townes, and Martinus Veltmann.

                             I also wish to take this opportunity to thank all those numerous people – including the majority all of the above-cited Nobel prizewinners – who have given me permission to quote form their books and articles: Georg Bednorz, Hans Bethe, Nicolaas Bloembergen, Owen Chamberlain, Steven Chu, James Cronin, Paul Davies, Robert Marc Friedman, Murray Gell-Mann, Sheldon Glashow, George Johnson, Daniel Kleppner, Robert Laughlin, Leon Lederman, Simon van der Meer, Sir Brian Pippard, Norman Ramsey, Silvan S. Schweber, Daniel Tsui, Steven Weinberg, the late Victor Weisskopf, Kenneth Wilson, Chen Ning Yang.

                             At the same time my thanks are due to many institutions for permission to reproduce excerpts from their publications: I am particularly indebted to the Nobel Foundation, (holders of the copyright for the Nobel Lectures). I also wish to acknowledge help form the Cambridge University Press, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Institute of Physics Publishing, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs, the MIT Press, the Oxford University Press, the Princeton University Press, and Springer-Verlag. To these I must add those individuals and institutions which provided photographs and illustrtions, together with their permission to publish (acknowledgements will be found in the figure captions or in the section ‘Notes’).

                             I am also deeply indebted to a large number of individuals for their help and encouragement. I wish to thank particularly Andrzej Stasiak, of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, for his careful review of the whole manuscript, and for a notable contribution both of invaluable comments and of practical suggestions from which I have benefited greatly. Portions of the manuscript dealing with diverse topics have been read by colleagues and correspondents, and I think particularly of Paolo Allia, Polytechnic of Turin, Italy Ugo Amaldi, Sergio Ferrara and Giorgio Stefanini, CERN, Geneva Ferdinando Amman and Vito Svelto, University of Pavia, Italy Joseph Avron, Technion, Haifa, Israel Giorgio Parisi, University La Sapienza in Rome, Italy Lucio Braicovich and Orazio Svelto, Polytechnic of Milan, Italy Giulio Casati, University of Como, Italy Russel J. Donnelly, University of Oregon, USA Attilio Ferrari, University of Turin, Italy Giorgio Frossati, University of Leiden, Holland Leo Kadanoff, University of Chicago, USA Daniel Kleppner, MIT, USA Emilio Picasso, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy Guido Pizzella, University of Rome at Tor Vergata, Italy Sir Brian Pippard, University of Cambridge, England Martin A. Pomerantz University of Delaware, Newark, USA Renzo Ricca, University College, London, England USA Michael Stone, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Adrian Sutton, Oxford University, England Valentine Telegdi, Caltech, USA, and CERN, Switzerland Clifford M. Will, Washington University, USA Dieter Vollhardt, University of Ausburg, Germany. These all deserve my thanks, and I am happy to be able to record my gratitude here.

                             Naturally any errors or misconceptions that still remain in the book are my responsibility, and I take this opportunity to apologise sincerely for them.

                             The technical aspects called into play during the preparation of this book have been attended to by too many people to thank individually, but I must acknowledge my debt to Michele Manzini and Aldo Masoero, each of whom have been of major assistance throughout all stages of the preparation of the work. A word of genuine appreciation is due to my friend Piero Bosso for his line drawings, and to Françoise Hayes for her helpfulness during the preparatory phase of this work. My university, the Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont (Italy), has supported the research that was undertaken in the preparation of this book, and I am glad to be able to record my appreciation accordingly.

                             Finally, it is with particular pleasure that I express my gratitude to Simon Capelin (Publishing Director – Physical Science and Engineering) and to the staff of the Cambridge University Press, whose professional competence, cordiality and patience have made the whole process of bringing this book to birth so smooth and effortless.

                          The Early Winners

                          The first person from Africa to win a Nobel Prize was Max Theiler, a South African man who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1951. Six years later, the famed absurdist philosopher and author Albert Camus won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Camus was French, and so many people assume he was born in France, but he was in fact born, raised, and educated in French Algeria.

                          Both Theiler and Camus had emigrated out of Africa at the time of their awards, however, making Albert Lutuli the first person to be awarded a Nobel Prize for work completed in Africa. At the time, Lutuli (who was born in Southern Rhodesia, which is now Zimbabwe) was the President of the African National Congress in South Africa and was awarded the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize for his role leading the non-violent campaign against apartheid.

                          Sporting Highlights for 2006

                          Here are the sporting highlights of the world of sport in 2006. The biggest event of the year was the FIFA World Cup in Germany, with the Winter Olympics another big world event. The Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne.

                          On Jan 22nd, basketballer Kobe Bryant, the black mamba, put on his superhuman mask and torched the Toronto Raptors scoring 81 points. Though billed as the second highest score in a match after Wilt's 100, most ardent basketball fans consider this as the greatest game ever by a single player.

                          It’s tough, to say the least, to get a hat-trick in cricket, even tougher in a test match, and close to impossible to get one in the very first over of a match. Ifran Pathan achieved this historical feat on Jan 29th in a Test match against Pakistan where he picked three straight wickets in the last three balls of the very first over of the match.

                          Rafael Nadal won his second straight French Open title defeating Roger Federer in the finals. Federer though got back on the then budding star in the Wimbledon finals that same year to win his 4th straight Wimbledon title. Federer won three of the four grand slam events.

                          When the name is Michael Jordan, anything is news, this one on an unfortunate note though, where Michael was divorced after 17 years of marriage with Juanita Vanoy. On another sad note from the NBA, coaching legend Red Auerbach passed away on Oct 28th at the age of 89.

                          Tiger Woods won the British Open and his 3rd US PGA, and maintained top position on the Top Earners for 2006.

                          In the Tour de France, Floyd Landis was the initial winner but subsequently rubbed out due to a failed drug test.

                          The 2006 Laureus World Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year Awards went to tennis player Roger Federer and alpine skier Janica Kostelić.

                          Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 2006.

                          Date Results
                          Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Roger Federer and Amelie Mauresmo.
                          Feb Super Bowl held in Detroit won by Pittsburgh.
                          Feb 10-26 Winter Olympic Games were held in Torino, Italy.
                          Mar 15-26 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia.
                          April Golf Masters won by Phil Mickelson (2nd win).
                          May Tennis French Open won by Rafael Nadal (Spain) and Justine Henin (Belgium).
                          June Golf US Open won by Geoff Ogilvy.
                          June 9 - July 9 FIFA World Cup (Football) tournament was held in Germany, won by Italy.
                          July the 2006 Cycling Tour de France was won by Óscar Pereiro
                          July Tennis Wimbledon won by Roger Federer (Switz) and Amelie Mauresmo (France).
                          July Golf British Open won by Tiger Woods
                          Aug Golf US PGA won by Tiger Woods
                          Sep Tennis US Open won by Roger Federer (Swiz) and Maria Sharapova
                          Oct The Baseball World Series was won by St. Louis Cardinals

                          Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

                          If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.

                          Research in the 21st century and conclusions

                          The success of Australian researchers in contributing to major advances continues in this century. Already, Australian researchers have led developments in vaccines against human papillomavirus, malaria and group A streptococcus have developed spray-on skin cells for burns victims and have led discoveries in genetics (eg, human enhancer sequences in DNA and functions for “junk DNA”).7

                          Countries with a high-quality health system need an active, involved health and medical research effort. The challenge put by Hughes in 1936 remains — that research must be actively pursued and developed, and as fast as new knowledge is acquired it must be applied.

                          1 Examples of Australian health and medical advances between 1950 and 20007

                          Discovery that kuru disease in Papua New Guinea was transmitted via cannibalistic practices

                          Identification of rotavirus

                          Purification of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

                          Antony Burgess, Donald Metcalf

                          Development of an artificial heart valve

                          Prevention of spina bifida with folate

                          Development of a multichannel cochlear implant

                          Discovery of neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza

                          Peter Colman, Mark von Itzstein, Graeme Laver

                          Describing a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome

                          Leadership of the World Health Organization campaign for the eradication of smallpox

                          Advancement of the understanding of the role of antibodies in the immune system

                          Discovery of the link between headache powders and kidney damage

                          Development of antivenoms for spider and snake bites

                          Discovery of Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease

                          Barry Marshall, Robin Warren

                          Investigation and naming of Q fever, leading to identification of Coxiella burnetii bacterium

                          Defining the role of neuropeptides in hypertension

                          Discovery of the role of the thymus in the immune system

                          Demonstration of chemical synaptic transmission being responsible for most central and peripheral synapses

                          Identification of links between fragile sites of chromosomes and mental retardation

                          Development of in vitro fertilisation

                          2 Milestones in government funding and administration of research in Australia through the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), 1937–2013

                          Provenance: Commissioned externally peer reviewed.

                          • Timothy Dyke
                          • Warwick P Anderson
                          • National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, ACT.

                          We are both NHMRC employees.

                            Morison P. Australian medical science before 1900. In: Isolated cases: 100 years of Australian medical research. Sydney: Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 2010. Gandevia B. The pattern of Australian medical history. ProcRoyalSocMed 1957 50: 591-598. Leggat PA. A college of tropical medicine for Australasia. Med JAust 1992 157: 222-223. Doyle AE. A survey of Australian achievements in medical research. A report to the National Health and Medical Research Council. Melbourne: 1989. Cumpston JHL. The health of the people a study in federalism. Canberra: Roebuck Society, 1978. Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council. NHMRC Strategic Plan 2013-2015. Canberra: NHMRC, 2012. National Health and Medical Research Council. High achievers in health and medical research. (accessed May 2014). Hobbins P, Hillier K. Isolated cases? The history and histiography of Australian medical research. Health History 2010 12: 1-17. National Health and Medical Research Council. Measuring up 2013. NHMRC-supported research: the impact of journal publication output 2005-2009. Canberra: NHMRC, 2013. Butler L, Biglia B, Burke P. Australian biomedical research: funding acknowledgements and performance. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 1998. National Health and Medical Research Council. Statement on scientific practice. Canberra: NHMRC, 1990. Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee. Guidelines for responsible practice in research and problems of research misconduct. Canberra: AVCC, 1990. National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Universities Australia. Australian code for the responsible conduct of research. Canberra: NHMRC, 2007. (accessed May 2014). National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee. National statement on ethical conduct in human research. Canberra: NHMRC, 2007. (accessed May 2014). National Health and Medical Research Council. Statement on human experimentation. Canberra: NHMRC, 1966. National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian code of practice for the use of animals for scientific purposes. Canberra: NHMRC, 1969. National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Universities Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. 8th ed. Canberra: NHMRC, 2013. (accessed May 2014). National Health and Medical Research Council. Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health research. Canberra: NHMRC, 2003. (accessed May 2014). All Nobel laureates in physiology or medicine. (accessed Jun 2014). Butler L, Biglia B. Analysing the journal output of NHMRC research grants schemes. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 2001. Butler L. NHMRC-supported research: the impact of journal publication output. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 2003. Butler L, Biglia B, Henadeera K. NHMRC-supported research: the impact of journal publication output 1999-2003. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 2005. Butler L, Henadeera K. Measuring up 2009: NHMRC-supported research &mdash the impact of journal publication output 2002-2006. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 2009. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Health expenditure Australia 2011-12. (AIHW Cat. No. HWE 59 Health and Welfare Expenditure Series 50.) Canberra: AIHW, 2013. Wills PJ (Chair). The virtuous cycle: working together for health and medical research. Health and medical research strategic review. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 1999. (accessed May 2014). Grant J (Chair). Sustaining the virtuous cycle for a healthy, competitive Australia. Investment review of health and medical research. Executive summary. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2004.$FILE/Executive_Summary.pdf (accessed May 2014). McKeon S (Chair). Strategic review of health and medical research. Final report. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2013. (accessed May 2014). Bernstein A (Chair). Independent review of the NHMRC research funding process. 23-25 October 2007. Canberra: NHMRC, 2007. (accessed May 2014). Nutbeam D (Chair). Report of the review of public health research funding in Australia. Canberra: NHMRC, 2008. (accessed May 2014). Zerhouni E (Chair). An international perspective on the National Health and Medical Research Council's research strategies. 28-30 January 2008. Final report. Canberra: NHMRC, 2008. (accessed May 2014). American Society for Cell Biology. San Francisco declaration on research assessment. 2013. (accessed May 2014).

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