Warren Reynolds

Warren Reynolds

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Warren Reynolds was born in Dallas on 22nd June, 1935. After leaving Forest Avenue High School he found work at his brother's company, Reynolds Motor Company.

On 22nd November, 1963, Reynolds was in the Oak Cliff area when Officer J. Tippit was killed. Robert J. Groden later claimed that Reynolds stated that the man he saw was not Lee Harvey Oswald.

On 23rd January, 1964, Reynolds was himself the victim of a violent attack. Darrell Garner was arrested but Betty Mooney MacDonald, who had worked for Jack Ruby gave Garner an alibi. MacDonald was then arrested for fighting with her roommate. Soon afterwards MacDonald committed suicide in her police cell.

Despite being shot in the head Reynolds survived and after making a full recovery gave evidence to Warren Commission. He had now changed his mind and identified Oswald as the man he had seen running from the scene of the crime.

Warren Reynolds was also one of the people to see a man fleeing the scene of the murder. Reynolds is on the South side of Jefferson Boulevard east of Patton Avenue in a used car lot. Initially, Reynolds stated that the man he saw was not Oswald. On January 23, 1964, Reynolds was shot in the head. A man named Darrell Garner was arrested for the shooting, but Betty Mooney MacDonald, who had worked for Jack Ruby gave Garner an alibi. MacDonald was then arrested for fighting with her roommate; the roommate was not arrested. MacDonald was found hanged in her jail cell. Reynolds, miraculously recovering from the gunshot wound, then changed his story and identified Lee as the man he had seen.

One witness was Warren Reynolds, who chased Tippit's killer. He, too, failed to identify Oswald as Tippit's killer until after he was shot in the head two months later. After recovering, Reynolds identified Oswald to the Warren Commission. (A suspect was arrested in the Reynolds shooting, but released when a former Jack Ruby stripper named Betty Mooney MacDonald provided an alibi. One week after her word released the suspect, MacDonald was arrested by Dallas Police and a few hours later was found hanged in her jail cell. Neither the FBI nor the Warren Commission investigated this strange incident.)

Warren Reynolds, was shot in the head two days after telling the FBI he could not identify Oswald. There was no apparent cause for the shooting. Reynolds recovered and later agreed he thought the fleeing gunman had been Oswald after all. Within a week or two of the Reynolds shooting, a key witness in that affair was found dead in a police cell, having apparently hanged herself. She had herself earlier mentioned an association with Jack Ruby and his club. The brother of a Tippit witness was shot dead, and many assumed it was a matter of mistaken identity. While these incidents arouse speculation, there is nothing evidentiary to link them to the Tippit or Kennedy killings. However, it is clear they were inadequately investigated.

Wesley Liebler: Tell us what you saw; will you, please?

Warren Reynolds: OK; our office is up high where I can have a pretty good view of what was going on. I heard the shots and, when I heard the shots, I went out on this front porch which is, like I say, high, and I saw this man coming down the street with the gun in his hand, swinging it just like he was running. He turned the corner of Patton and Jefferson, going west, and put the gun in his pants and took off, walking.

Wesley Liebler: How many shots did you hear?

Warren Reynolds: I really have no idea, to be honest with you. I would say four or five or six. I just would have no idea. I heard one, and then I heard a succession of some more, and I didn't see the officer get shot.

Wesley Liebler: Did you see this man's face that had the gun in his hand?

Warren Reynolds: Very good.

Wesley Liebler: Subsequent to that time, you were questioned by the Dallas Police Department, were you not?

Warren Reynolds: No.

Wesley Liebler: The Dallas Police Department never talked to you about the man that you saw going down the street?

Warren Reynolds: Now, they talked to me much later, you mean?

Wesley Liebler: OK; let me put it this way: When is the first time that anybody from any law-enforcement agency, and I mean by that, the FBI, Secret Service, Dallas Police Department, Dallas County sheriff's office; you pick it. When is the first time that they ever talked to you?

Warren Reynolds: January 21.

Wesley Liebler: That is the first time they ever talked to you about what you saw on that day?

Warren Reynolds: That's right.

Wesley Liebler: So you never in any way identified this man in the police department or any other authority, either in November or in December of 1963; is that correct?

Warren Reynolds: No; I sure didn't.

Wesley Liebler: So it can be in no way said that you "fingered" the man who was running down the street, and identified him as the man who was going around and putting the gun in his pocket?

Warren Reynolds: It can be said I didn't talk to the authorities.

Wesley Liebler: Did you say anything about it to anybody else?

Warren Reynolds: I did.

Wesley Liebler: Were you able to identify this man in your own mind?

Warren Reynolds: Yes.

Wesley Liebler: You did identify him as Lee Harvey Oswald in your own mind?

Warren Reynolds: Yes.

Wesley Liebler: You had no question about it?

Warren Reynolds: No.

Wesley Liebler: Let me show you some pictures that we have here. I show you a picture that has been marked Garner Exhibit No. 1 and ask you if that is the man that you saw going down the street on the 22d of November as you have already told us.

Warren Reynolds: Yes.

Wesley Liebler: You later identified that man as Lee Harvey Oswald?

Warren Reynolds: In my mind.

Wesley Liebler: Your mind, that is what I mean.

Warren Reynolds: Yes.

Wesley Liebler: When you saw his picture in the newspaper and on television? Is that right?

Warren Reynolds: Yes; unless you have somebody that looks an awful lot like him there.

Mr. Warren Reynolds, who was employed in a car lot one block from the scene of the shooting of police officer Tippit, told the FBI on January 21, 1964 that he had seen a man carrying a pistol fleeing from the scene of the killing. He also told them that he could not identify the man as Oswald, despite the fact that he had followed the man for a block and seen him at close range. Two days after this FBI interview he was shot through the head in the basement of his office. Since nothing was stolen there was no obvious motive.

Reynolds was hospitalized and miraculously recovered from his head wound. He had been out of the hospital for about three weeks when, late in February of 1964, an attempt was allegedly made to kidnap his ten year old daughter. He and his family received telephone threats. Reynolds' growing fear brought about major changes in his everyday life including continuous worry, the end to night walks, and the presence of a friend at the car lot after dark. He owned a watchdog and surrounded his house with floodlights which could be instantly turned on...

But the story is not over. Darrell Wayne Garner, the "prime suspect" arrested after the shooting of Reynolds, was released on the strength of an alibi provided by his girlfriend, Nancy Jane Mooney, alias Betty McDonald. Ms. Mooney had worked as a stripper at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club. Eight days after providing an alibi for Garner, Ms. Mooney was herself arrested. The charge was "disturbing the peace." She had allegedly been fighting with her roommate on a street corner, although the roommate was not arrested. Two hours later she was dead, allegedly having hung herself in her jail cell. Several years later Mr. Garner was located by independent investigators and denied shooting Reynolds but admitted knowing a number of the principal figures in the case and gave a good deal of information to independent investigators. He was buried in Dallas on January 24, 1970, allegedly the victim of a heroin overdose, his role in this whole affair still pretty unclear.

Warren Reynolds - History

In Reynolds v. Sims, the Court held that state legislative districts must be equal in population. Prior to the decision, urbanization had caused many rural districts to be overrepresented in several states. Above, African Americans march for equal voting rights.

Photo by Francis Miller Reproduction courtesy of TIME & LIFE Pictures

In Reynolds v. Sims (1964), the Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment requires that the legislative districts across states be equal in population. The case began in 1962, when the Supreme Court ruled that it had authority to review cases brought by individuals harmed by legislative apportionment or redistricting (see Baker v. Carr). With this ruling, more than 30 lawsuits were filed against states claiming legislative apportionment schemes to be unconstitutional. One case challenged the apportionment scheme of Alabama. Alabama's legislative districts still reflected population levels from the 1900 census. The plaintiffs argued that since 1900, urban districts had grown precipitously, thus diluting the votes of urban residents. Because votes from some districts thus carried more weight than votes from others, the plaintiffs claimed, Alabama's apportionment scheme violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause. A lower federal court agreed, and Alabama appealed to the Supreme Court in 1964.

In a decision written by Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court ruled that Alabama's apportionment scheme did violate the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause. Because "the right to exercise franchise in a free and unimpaired manner is preservative of other basic civil and political rights," the Court argued, the right to vote is a "fundamental right" strictly protected by the Constitution. And because the United States is a democracy based on equal representation of the people in government, an apportionment scheme that gives more weight to some votes than others violates the Equal Protection Clause, which forbids a state from denying "to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Because the right to vote is so fundamental to securing protection from the laws, the clause inevitably guarantees "the opportunity for equal participation by all voters in the election of state legislatures."

The Court acknowledged that it is practically impossible for a state to create legislative districts that are precisely even in population. The Court also conceded that states, in drawing their districts, may have some legitimate interests that incidentally create minor population disparities. Nonetheless, geographic concerns alone can never justify creating districts that are unequal in population. Chief Justice Warren wrote that "legislators represent people, not trees or acres" and "legislators are elected by voters, not farms or cities or economic interests." In short, the Court ruled that population must always be the "controlling consideration" in state redistricting. Alabama was thus ordered to reapportion its legislative districts using this calculus, making them "as nearly equal of population as is practicable."

Reynolds v. Sims created much controversy. In response to the decision, U.S. Senator Everett Dirkson of Illinois proposed a constitutional amendment that would expressly permit unequal legislative districts. The senator argued that "the forces of our national life are not brought to bear on public questions solely in proportion to the weight of numbers." To hold otherwise, he claimed, would mean that "six million citizens of the Chicago area would hold sway in the Illinois Legislature without consideration of the problems of their four million fellows who are scattered in 100 other counties." Dirkson's proposed amendment was ultimately defeated.

The Reynolds decision, which Warren considered to be his finest, ultimately prevailed over Senator Dirkson's and others' arguments that the Supreme Court has no business meddling in "political" state apportionment schemes. Respect for state sovereignty must bow to the republic's most basic principles, liberty and equality, and the right to an equal vote is the necessary means to securing both.

Published in December 2006.
THE SUPREME COURT is a production of Thirteen/WNET New York.
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RFA History

The Reynolds Family Association (RFA) was organized 23 Aug 1892 by some of the descendants of one of the early Connecticut families. In 1977 it was reorganized and incorporated the RFA currently maintains a membership of about 200 members per year. Membership is open to all individuals who are interested in any Reynolds family. The name Reynolds was (and is) spelled in a variety of ways, including Raynolds, Rennels, Runnels, Reynoldson, MacReynolds, McReynolds and many, many others, all of which are included in RFA.

RFA, not affiliated with any other Reynolds family group, is not a genealogical society and is not a commercial research enterprise. It is just a group of people wanting the bond of belonging to one of the Reynolds families and wishing to maintain their histories for future generations. RFA functions and endures on the volunteer time and commitment of individual members.

  • To share genealogical information,
  • Promote recognition of a common ancestry,
  • Develop acquaintance among Reynolds kindred, and
  • Collect and maintain a permanent record of Reynolds family history for future generations.

The RFA newsletter, RFA Dispatch, the RFA Archives (files), the RFA Web site, and annual reunions are the vehicles used to fulfill RFA's official purpose.

RFA NEWSLETTER: RFA Dispatch is the primary vehicle for dissemination of Reynolds family information. It is through the Dispatch that we get to know each other, past, present, and future, on a regular basis. Available to members only. The RFA Dispatch is an electronic newsletter that is published quarterly.

RFA ARCHIVES: RFA, a membership corporation, does not search its files for, or provide information to, non-members. When new information relevant to members' families becomes available it is published in the RFA Dispatch, on the web site, or the member is put in contact with another member who may be helpful. This service is included in the annual membership fee. Although the files are being entered into computers, members cannot access the files themselves at this time. We are working on getting all files on our "Members Only" web site.

OTHER RFA PUBLICATIONS: The intent of the RFA organizers was to publish a complete volume covering all known branches of the Reynolds families and, hopefully, tying all these families together. All the compiled notes and papers were retained by the members, but became the basis for the genealogies published by the RFA in the 1920s, when Marion H. Reynolds published two books on Robert of Boston, one on John of Watertown, and one on John of Norwich CT.

In the 1920s the decision was made to begin using "Annuals" as a vehicle for continuing the publication of family records. Again, most of the genealogical notes and papers were retained by the members who compiled them, but became the substance of the RFA Annuals which were published over the years, though not annually. Publication was discontinued in 1937.

In 1993 RFA published The RFA Centennial Collection, which includes much of the archival genealogical material, corrected and/or updated, except for that contained in the 1982 Annual. Additionally, the Centennial Collection contains much new information. The RFA Centennial Collection is hardbound, indexed, and contains 811 pages. These books and Annuals are now available on our "Members Only" web site.

Kim Reynolds arrest records blocked by Iowa court system

IOWA CITY, Iowa — Iowa’s court system has blocked public access to online records detailing Gov. Kim Reynolds’ 2000 drunk driving arrest, saying they inadvertently exposed her sensitive personal information for nine months.

The records contained the governor’s Social Security number, driver’s license number and other information that should not have been made public under court rules. After an inquiry from The Associated Press last week, the court system removed public access to the files after determining that they should not have been accessible online even though they had been since last September.

Iowa Judicial Branch spokesman Steve Davis said that the Warren County clerk of court’s office in Indianola received a request for the paper files on the case Sept. 5, as Reynolds was seeking a four-year term in the November election. After retrieving them from an archive, the worker scanned the files into the Electronic Data Management System so that they could be more easily accessed by court staff in the future, he said.

Under court rules intended to protect personal privacy, the files should have been placed at a security level that allowed only court personnel to access them. Instead, the records were inadvertently made available to all users, including thousands of lawyers, court officials, media outlets and members of the public who use or subscribe to the service.

Iowa became the first state to require electronic filing of all court records in 2015. Court rules require filers to redact confidential personal information, and they can face sanctions for submissions that fail to do so. Paper files for cases that occurred before electronic filing do not have such redactions, and clerks are supposed to restrict access to them if they choose to scan those records into the system.

Davis said paper records related to the August 2000 arrest can still be accessed at the courthouse. Reynolds spokesman Pat Garrett declined comment.

Reynolds has said that the arrest, her second for operating while intoxicated in a year, was a turning point. She says that she got treatment for alcoholism and has been sober since then.

Then the Clarke County treasurer, Reynolds also received a legal break that may have helped save her career in public office.

Reynolds was arrested by an Iowa State Patrol officer on Interstate 35 after a motorist called in a reckless driver. The man reported that he almost lost control of his vehicle after Reynolds’ minivan forced a vehicle traveling in the right lane over to the left and that Reynolds went into the median while traveling 65 miles per hour.

The trooper found Reynolds had an open bottle of whiskey and a blood alcohol content of .228. She agreed to the breath test at the jail after having a relative get in touch with her friend Gary Kimes - a judge who had previously served as Clarke County attorney, a report shows.

An assistant Warren County attorney later charged Reynolds with second-offense operating while intoxicated, noting Reynolds had been convicted of her first offense eight months prior. But the same day, the prosecutor amended the charge to first-offense operating while intoxicated, without giving a reason for the change.

The second-offense charge would have been an aggravated misdemeanor, which means it was an “infamous crime” under state law that could have disqualified Reynolds from voting and holding public office. Instead, she pleaded guilty to the lesser charge a month later and went on to be elected to the state Senate, lieutenant governor and governor.

The Iowa Supreme Court overruled prior precedent in 2014 and declared that only felonies, not aggravated misdemeanors, trigger the loss of voting rights.

[Affidavit In Any Fact by Warren Allen Reynolds]

Affidavit In Any Fact by Warren Allen Reynolds. Reynolds states that he was working at a car lot on November 22, 1963 and heard a gunshot shortly after noon. He saw a man running towards Jefferson Street from Tenth Street, who he later learned was Lee Harvey Oswald.

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How Klyde Warren Park Was Built

Develop 5 acres of green space that supports 10,000 people atop a freeway that cuts through the center of one of the nation’s largest cities? Sure, we can do that.

What would it take to construct a “lid” over Woodall Rodgers Freeway for a deck park? In late 2005, that question left Carter Burgess engineer Tom Shelton scratching his head.

“I went to Jody Grant’s office at Texas Capital Bank, and he literally pulled out a napkin and said, ‘Here’s what I’m thinking about,’” says Shelton, who served as lead project engineer during the Klyde Warren Park’s pre-development stage. “I had enormous admiration for what they were wanting to do, but their idea about putting a lid on top of the freeway? My first thought was, ‘These people are nuts.’”

After conducting some feasibility studies, however, Shelton changed his mind. He joined a core team of players who helped convert a concrete hole into what many hope becomes an iconic centerpiece for Dallas.

Every public-private partnership is uniquely structured, and the park’s is no exception, with three owners: the Texas Department of Transportation, the City of Dallas, and The Woodall Rodgers Park Foundation. Add in two general contractors, Archer Western and McCarthy Building Cos., and that’s a lot of hammers in the tool shed. Somehow, it worked.

“We’re a team that tries to think of everything,” says Keith Bjerke, a consultant who serves as project manager of the park.

In June 2006, the Foundation unveiled landscape architect James Burnett’s park design, which incorporated feedback from public input sessions held at the Nasher Sculpture Center earlier that year.

During the concept phase, design plans for the park, which runs from Pearl to St. Paul streets, weren’t grandiose. Many envisioned a green space for people to throw a Frisbee or walk the dog. But when private fund-raising took off, donors asked if their money could go toward a children’s area or other specific feature. The park’s design bloated with amenities: a performance stage, a restaurant, water features, a children’s garden, botanical gardens, a dog park, and lush landscaping.

Amenities like performance stages and trees are nice, but they weigh—a lot. Before laying the first support column, structural engineer Mir Hadi Ali needed the big picture from designers so he could calculate how much the amenities would weigh. The equation included factors like the weight of 322 trees at maturation, 904 shrubs, equipment, soil, park attendees, and even rainwater.

The weight load on the deck was drastically reduced by using geo-foam, which is like a dense Styrofoam, and engineering lightweight fill wherever planting soil wasn’t needed. As a comparison, geo-foam weighs 1.8 pounds per cubic foot and the lightweight fill weighs 65 pounds per cubic foot regular soil weighs nearly double that, at 120 pounds per cubic foot. The deck uses 200,000 cubic feet of geo-foam, which weighs 180 tons, versus 12,000 tons for soil.The majority of the structure that supports the park is concrete. There are no steel beams.

Designing a deck structure that could support that weight across a 200-foot wide freeway posed a huge challenge. There were only so many places to put support columns, so general contractor Archer Western constructed them behind the existing walls in most areas. A center support was built in the middle of the freeway, says Jacobs Engineering Group’s Ali, who is engineer of record for the park.

This project is unique because it’s a bridge, but it’s not a bridge, says Ali, who describes it as a combined bridge, park, and tunnel design all in one.

Creating an accessible urban park with-out barriers or step-ups was a mission early on. Engineers wrestled with this challenge, as they wanted to match the grade elevations for the park with the frontage roads.

They had to maintain a minimum vertical clearance of 16 feet-6 inches under the deck, but standard concrete TxDOT beams would raise the park too high. They chose shorter, pre-stressed 54-inch concrete box beams that could bear the load and not impede the freeway design.

“The reason for doing the park was to eliminate the barrier of the highway trench and to connect Uptown and downtown,” Bjerke says. “We wanted it to be seamless so you can walk in the park from any direction.”

The structural beams in the deck structure also served another purpose. Designers wanted the tree roots to grow underground, but needed room for the root-balls to properly grow. The beams were arranged in groups of three or more, and concrete panels were placed between the beam groups to form trenches. The 100 trenches act like planter boxes and accommodate not only the tree root-balls, but fiber optic cables, water and gas lines, and telephone and electrical lines.

“It’s very unique,” Ali says. “I’ve not seen it done anywhere else.”

Because the trees are trenched on a grid, the landscaper had to map out every tree in the park much earlier in the design. But even though the trees are planted on a grid, it doesn’t look that way because the walkway is curved, Bjerke says.

Root repellent helps control the trees’ growth, which could damage the structure and cause cracks.

A drainage mat, located between the deck structure and the soil, draws excess moisture to the landscaping. The park has a slight tilt to it, so any excess water drains off into the storm sewer system. If the trenches fill up from excess rainwater, large geo-foam blocks anchored to the deck will help displace the water, Ali said. Archer Western also waterproofed the beams to prevent water saturation, which can cause weight issues and eventual damage, says Bill Hale, TxDOT’s Dallas district engineer.

With the design complete, it was time for TxDOT to award the contract to build the structure. But the project hit a snag because much of the funding raised at that point was designated for the actual park—not the deck. Even though TxDOT kicked in $20 million for the $51 million project, there was still a $16.7 million gap, as construction costs were rising.

After President Obama took office, his first initiative was the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, established to provide federal funding to transportation projects to get people back to work. Shelton prepared the application and worked closely with elected officials. By March 2009, the $16.7 million check was in hand.

“It was quite amazing. All of the stars came into alignment,” says Shelton, now a senior project manager at the North Central Texas Council of Governments. “This is one of those projects that was clearly meant to be. If you go over the history, it was really magical the things that happened.”

U.S. Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood, who visited the park site last fall, added: “Klyde Warren Park is a great example of what we can achieve when the federal government, local communities, and private companies work together toward a sustainable future. … The project will provide long-term benefits for the residents of Dallas.”

In August 2009, TxDOT awarded archer Western, an Atlanta-based company with a regional office in Dallas, the $44.5 million contract to build the park deck and tunnel. Archer Western built the retaining walls and began installing the first of 316 cross beams in October 2010, celebrating the kickoff with a picnic for donors and the public.

It took a year to install the cross beams, which were placed in tandem by two cranes aligned on either side of the bridge.

TxDOT only allowed 20 highway closings for the project’s duration, mostly on nights and weekends, making it even more difficult to complete the work, Bjerke says.

During construction, TxDOT closed the eastbound Pearl Street exit as a safety measure until the beams were placed.Once the deck was covered, it converted from a depressed open expressway into a 1,200-foot long tunnel. The tunnel classification meant complying with a whole new set of rules from the National Fire Protection Association.

Mid-project, a code change resulted in a “$1.5 million surprise” that wasn’t originally budgeted, Bjerke says. To comply, the project required a 1.5-inch fireproofing layer on the bottom of the structure and on the new central wall. The tunnel design also includes sprinklers and 28 jet exhaust fans, which would protect it and the park from fire in the case of an accident or crash.

From the park, the massive fans aren’t visible, but drive through the well-lit tunnel and it feels like you’re driving on an East Coast freeway.

The jet fans serve another purpose. If there’s excessive traffic in the tunnel, a carbon monoxide system will trigger and turn on the fans, Bjerke says.

Traffic flow and crosswalks were also addressed early on in the project. If all of the streets were left in place, the area would be divided into three separate parks, making it difficult for patrons to safely visit each venue. The goal was to close Harwood street to through traffic to alleviate the problem. In addition, 18-foot-wide, enhanced crosswalks with improved markings were planned so patrons could walk to adjacent parking garages, as parking is limited on the street.

“At the end of the day, it really increases the functionality and operations of the park,” Shelton says.


Woodall Rodgers Park Foundation chose McCarthy Building Cos. to handle construction of the park’s amenities. The general contractor is no stranger to high-profile Arts District projects the AT&T Performing Arts Center and the Dallas City Performance Hall are evidence of that.

McCarthy’s work at the park is what brings it to life: the children’s area, performance stage, landscaping, fountains, and Thomas Phifer-designed restaurant, plus 65,000 square feet of paved plazas, walkways, and seating areas.

“This partnership was unique in the way they split it up,” says Aaron Guiter, McCarthy’s project superintendent. “But we worked closely with Archer Western and built a good relationship with them.”

McCarthy, which began construction in June, is used to working in wide, open spaces, not overpasses. The close quarters and weight and loading requirements required the company to reduce the amount of material and large equipment it could transport at one time.

“It just makes us work differently as we coordinate with contractors and make them understand that before doing the work so it’s not a surprise when they show up,” Guiter says. “It’s going to be a great successful project for downtown and we’re glad to be a part of it.”

Field trips to similarly programmed parks like Bryant Park in New York City and Millennium Park in Chicago gave designers an inside look at how they’re managed and the amenities they offer. They also offered insights into how to provide security, handle trash, graffiti, and any homeless issues.

Building from scratch afforded opportunities to include many sustainable design features. Bjerke says the park project is registered for LEED certification his goal is for it to achieve silver designation, one of the highest classifications, by November 2013.

The park’s LED light poles are wrapped in solar panels and run using a high-efficiency lighting management system, which results in annual savings of about 94,000 kilowatts of electricity.

No need to worry about germ-infested fountain water, either. The five water features use a water reclamation system and double purification systems that reduce the use of potable water and help dispose of dirty water. These systems daily save about 18 bathtubs of water.

The 11,000-square-foot café and restaurant, which are likely to open next summer, also will use geothermal energy for cooling and heating, high-efficiency light fixtures, and recycling materials.

The park also has systems in place that allow organizers to bring in executive-style portable washrooms (like those typically found at the Byron Nelson golf tournament) for special events.

A 15-foot-by-50-foot generator sits at the east side of Pearl Street, backing up the tunnel and providing emergency lights to the park if the power fails. Most people won’t notice this massive generator, however, as it’s camouflaged with trees and greenery.


Some say a park on top of the freeway never would have been possible without former Dallas Mayor Erik Jonsson’s foresight in the 1960s. He asserted that the 1.61-mile freeway should run below ground level in a trench. Could Jonsson have envisioned a green space like Klyde Warren Park decades before its time?

“The covering the freeway notion—why it went down instead of up—has been out there in city lore for some time,” says attorney Rob Walters, vice chairman of the foundation’s board.

John Reynolds, who has worked with Dallas’ Parks Department for 26 years, helped perform due diligence on the park project in 2005. That was a year before $20 million was voted on and allocated to the park through the city’s 2006 capital bond program.

Smaller city projects, like the 2-acre Main Street Garden, strive to transform parking lots into green spaces. But aside from Fair Park, Klyde Warren Park is one of the parks department’s largest public-private partnerships.

Some surrounding neighbors took some convincing that the park would be an asset but they’re now enthusiastically on board.

“They’ve become our biggest advocates,” Shelton says.

Aside from soaring real estate values, there are other benefits, too. The park’s trees and plants are expected to ease the urban heat island effect, and help absorb freeway noise and dirty air.

Bjerke says acoustic levels at the park site measured in the high 80s and low 90s before construction, but are expected to drop to 60 decibels—the same level as a normal conversation—upon completion. The reduced noise should benefit not only those in the park, but also adjacent property owners.

“Being out there now, it has changed from an inhospitable, no-man’s land to a pretty comfortable space,” says Reynolds, the city’s parks project manager. “It was almost overwhelming how much noise and traffic was there. It has changed the character of the service road to more like a street scene. It’s a lot calmer out there than I ever anticipated.”

1960s Supreme Court Forced States to Make Their Voting Districts Fairer

In the United States, where you live can affect the power of your vote. And before the era of high-tech gerrymandering, a series of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s forced states to redraw egregiously outdated voting maps and served as an equalizing force in American democracy.

As a result of this “redistricting revolution,” Americans became more uniformly represented in their legislatures than they had in the past 50 years. The Supreme Court decisions established that the number of legislative representatives in a district or state must accurately reflect the number of people who live there.

States, some of which hadn’t redrawn their maps in more than sixty years, were subsequently forced to update their legislative districts after every census so each district had roughly equal populations. This had a huge impact on voters in the United States𠅊t least until computer technology ushered in a new form of gerrymandering in the late 1970s.

The people behind the redistricting revolution were mostly city-dwellers who lacked equal representation with those in rural areas. “Up until that point, there was no enforceable requirement of equal-population districts redrawn after every 10 years,” says David Stebenne, a professor of history and law at The Ohio State University. “It’s not strictly speaking an outgrowth of the civil rights movement, but the people involved in this litigation can see the parallel.”

Leaders in the civil rights movement supported these cases and were aware that they would boost black voting power in the north and, hopefully, one day in the south (the redistricting revolution court cases preceded the Voting Rights Act of 1965). Stebenne thinks members of the court who decided the redistricting revolution cases were “mindful of the link” to the civil rights movement, too. (Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the majority opinion in Brown v. Board of Education, and presided over one of the more activist courts in U.S. history.)

Before 1900, states had regularly updated their districts without being told. But after the 1900 census, many states stopped redrawing their maps in order to keep political power in the hands of those who already had it: white, rural, native-born Americans.

As more people moved from rural areas to cities and suburbs over the next 60 years, rural residents gained disproportionate political power over the rest of the state. This was the case in southern states like Tennessee, as well as northern states like Illinois. In the north, the failure to redraw districts ensured that black Americans who moved to cities during the Great Migration, as well as immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, would have less political power when they got there.

These uneven districts often favored one party over another—Republicans in the north, Democrats in the south𠅊nd this political dimension was one reason the Supreme Court preferred not to intervene in redistricting cases like Colegrove v. Green in 1946. But less than 20 years later, the court had changed, and the majority of the justices saw it as an issue of equal protection under the 14th Amendment.

In 1962, the court ruled in Baker v. Carr that Tennessee had to redraw its uneven districts, which the state had not updated since the 1900 census. The next year, the court ruled in Gray v. Sanders that states must have a “one person, one vote” standard in statewide elections—something that seems like it should be obvious, but evidently was not.

Then in 1964, the court followed this up with two major, game-changing decisions. In Reynolds v. Sims, the court ruled that all state legislative districts must have roughly equal populations. And in Wesberry v. Sanders, it ruled that states must regularly adjust their federal congressional districts so that each of the 435 members in the House of Representatives represents roughly the same number of people. This meant states would gain or lose members as their populations shifted. (The court ruled the U.S. Senate could continue giving every state two members regardless of population because it was a unique institution but no state legislatures could operate this way.)

It took awhile for states to redraw their districts, but once they did, the change was significant. “You could argue that most even-handed drawing took place from the mid-�s through late �s,” Stebenne says. After that, the redistricting revolution came up against a problem none of the justices could’ve predicted—high-tech gerrymandering.

Gerrymandering has existed in some fashion ever since the founding of the United States and though the redistricting revolution made gerrymandering more difficult, it didn’t make it impossible. By the late 1970s, Stebenne says tech firms in California had designed “sophisticated computer software that would enable people [or] parties to draw these really exotic-shaped districts that maximize partisan advantage while still preserving equal-population districts.”

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Earl Warren

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Earl Warren, (born March 19, 1891, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.—died July 9, 1974, Washington, D.C.), American jurist, the 14th chief justice of the United States (1953–69), who presided over the Supreme Court during a period of sweeping changes in U.S. constitutional law, especially in the areas of race relations, criminal procedure, and legislative apportionment.

Warren was the son of Erik Methias Warren, a Norwegian immigrant who worked as a railroad repairman, and Christine Hernlund Warren, who emigrated with her parents from Sweden when she was a child. His father was blacklisted for a time following the Pullman Strike (1894), and Earl also worked for the railroad during his youth his experience soured his view toward the railway, and in his memoirs he noted that his progressive political and legal attitudes resulted from his exposure to the exploitive and corrupt conduct of the railroad companies.

Warren attended the University of California, Berkeley, where he received bachelor’s (1912) and law (1914) degrees. His political appetite was whetted by his work on the successful campaign of Progressive Party gubernatorial candidate Hiram Johnson. After graduation he was admitted to the bar and spent three years in private practice. In 1917 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, serving stateside during World War I and rising to the rank of first lieutenant before his discharge in 1918. Thereafter he briefly worked with the California State Assembly before becoming deputy city attorney for Oakland in 1920 he took up the post of deputy district attorney for Alameda county. In 1925–26 he served out the remaining year of the district attorney’s term of office, and in 1926 he won a full term as Alameda county district attorney.

As district attorney until 1939, Warren distinguished himself for both his honesty and hard work and for fighting corruption (e.g., he successfully prosecuted the county sheriff and several of his deputies). He also earned support within the Republican Party for prosecuting radicals under the state syndicalism laws during the 1920s and for securing the convictions of labour-union leftists in the 1930s. Enjoying an excellent reputation throughout the state and country, Warren was elected state attorney general in 1938. He was easily elected governor in 1942 and twice won reelection (1946, 1950), becoming the first California governor to win three successive terms (in 1946 he won both the Democratic and Republican party primaries for governor). As governor, he supported the controversial policy of interning Japanese Americans during World War II and progressive policies on issues such as education, health care, and prison reform.

He was nominated as the Republican candidate for vice president of the United States in 1948, losing on a ticket with Thomas Dewey (it was his only defeat in an election). Despite the 1948 loss, his national reputation continued to grow, and he gained a strong following as a potential presidential candidate in 1952. As the campaign drew near, divisions within the Republican Party began to emerge. His moderate position in the campaign against communism (led in California by fellow Republican Richard M. Nixon)—e.g., he opposed loyalty oaths for professors at the University of California—and his less-than-committed primary campaign left Warren a distant third, behind Robert A. Taft and General Dwight D. Eisenhower, by the time of the Republican National Convention. Nevertheless, Warren hoped to secure the Republican nomination as a compromise candidate. However, a pair of strategic moves—one by Nixon to secretly campaign for Eisenhower despite his pledge of support for Warren, and one by Warren to support the Fair Play Act that effectively assured delegate support for Eisenhower for president—ultimately sank his nomination, and he campaigned vigorously for Eisenhower in the general election. In gratitude for his loyalty, Eisenhower considered Warren for several cabinet offices and later promised Warren the first vacant seat on the court. In July 1953 Eisenhower offered Warren the post of solicitor general, but when Chief Justice Fred Vinson died suddenly on Sept. 8, 1953, Eisenhower, honouring his commitment, appointed Warren interim chief justice on March 1, 1954, Warren’s appointment was confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

In his first term on the bench, he spoke for a unanimous court in the leading school-desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), declaring unconstitutional the separation of public-school children according to race. Rejecting the “separate but equal” doctrine that had prevailed since Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, Warren, speaking for the court, stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal,” and the court subsequently called for the desegregation of public schools with “all deliberate speed.” In Watkins v. United States (1957), Warren led the court in upholding the right of a witness to refuse to testify before a congressional committee, and, in other opinions concerning federal and state loyalty and security investigations, he likewise took a position discounting the fear of communist subversion that was prevalent in the United States during the 1950s.

In Reynolds v. Sims (1964), using the Supreme Court’s precedent set in Baker v. Carr (1962), Warren held that representation in state legislatures must be apportioned equally on the basis of population rather than geographical areas, remarking that “legislators represent people, not acres or trees.” In Miranda v. Arizona (1966)—a landmark decision of the Warren court’s rulings on criminal justice—he ruled that the police, before questioning a criminal suspect, must inform him of his rights to remain silent and to have counsel present (appointed for him if he is indigent) and that a confession obtained in defiance of these requirements is inadmissible in court.

After the assassination of Pres. John F. Kennedy on Nov. 22, 1963, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Warren to chair a commission established to investigate the killing as well as the murder of the presumed assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. The report of the Warren Commission was submitted in September 1964 and was published later that year. Partly because of his bureaucratic naiveté and partly because of his interest in conducting a quick investigation that would allow the country—and the Kennedy family—to move beyond the tragedy, the report proved remarkably uncritical in accepting government information (particularly information provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency). For example, Warren rushed the commission’s staff, refused to interview Kennedy’s widow, and kept the autopsy photos under seal. Ultimately, the report did not silence those who presumed there had been a wide conspiracy to assassinate the president.

Convinced that Nixon (whom by this time Warren detested) would win the presidency in 1968 and wanting Johnson to name his replacement, Warren notified Johnson that he would resign at the president’s pleasure. Johnson subsequently attempted to elevate Justice Abe Fortas as Warren’s successor (and to name Homer Thornberry to take Fortas’s seat as associate justice), but, in the face of a conservative filibuster, Fortas’s nomination was withdrawn Nixon subsequently appointed Warren Burger chief justice, and Warren officially retired on June 23, 1969.

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