Nedeva 11 SP-64 - History

Nedeva 11 SP-64 - History


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Nedeva 11
(SP-64: dp. 18; 1. 60'; b. 10'10"; dr. 1'2"; s. 12 k.; a. 1 1-pdr.)

Nedeva II, a motor boat built in 1917 by Essington Shipbuilding Co., Essington, Pa., was taken over by the Navy from J. H. R. Cromwell, Philadelphia, Pa. 10 April 1917, and placed in service the same day, with Cromwell in command.

Operating in the 4th Naval District, headquartered at Philadelphia, Nedeva II patrolled in the area, protecting shipping in the Delaware River. After wartime service, she was placed out of service and returned to her owner.


Windows Server 2008 R2

Windows Server 2008 R2 is the fifth version of the Windows Server operating system produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, [10] and became generally available on October 22, 2009. [11] It is the successor to Windows Server 2008, which is derived from the Windows Vista codebase, released the previous year.

Enhancements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include new functionality for Active Directory, new virtualization and management features, version 7.5 of the Internet Information Services web server and support for up to 256 [12] logical processors. It is built on the same kernel used with the client-oriented Windows 7, and is the first server operating system released by Microsoft to exclusively support 64-bit processors.

Microsoft stopped providing security updates and technical support for Windows Server 2008 R2 RTM since April 9, 2013, and Service Pack 1 must be installed to continue receiving support and updates on any given Windows operating system. Seven editions of Windows Server 2008 R2 were released: Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web, HPC Server and Itanium, as well as Windows Storage Server 2008 R2. A home server variant called Windows Home Server 2011 was also released.

Official mainstream support for Windows Server 2008 and 2008 R2 ended on January 13, 2015, and extended support ended on January 14, 2020. [13] A support program is currently available for enterprises, providing security updates for Windows 7 for up to four years since the official end of life.

Windows Server 2008 R2 was succeeded by the Windows 8-based Windows Server 2012.


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31 HELMDON

The parish is large, covering more than 1550 hectares, and includes the former parish of Falcutt and Astwell. It extends from the headwaters of the R. Tove in the N. to a tributary of the Great Ouse on the S. boundary. The central watershed, rising to 165 m. above OD, is covered by Boulder Clay Oolitic limestones are exposed along the valley sides and Upper Lias Clay in the valley bottoms. The old parish of Helmdon occupied the W. and N. part of the present parish, and the S.E. part was once the parish of Falcutt and Astwell, which itself was a chapelry of Wappenham. There was formerly a detached part of Helmdon parish lying to the S.E. of Falcutt village (Fig. 117). The present parish contains several important medieval sites, including the deserted villages of Astwell (6) and Falcutt (5). However the most interesting monument is the manor house site and settlement remains of Helmdon (4) which together may indicate that part of the village was deliberately planned.

Fig. 73 Helmdon (2) Roman settlement

Prehistoric and Roman

A Roman coin, of Galerius, is recorded from the rectory garden (lost OS Record Cards).

d (1) Neolithic Settlement (SP 628438), N.E. of Astwell, on gravel of 140 m. above OD. A late Neolithic domestic site is recorded, though no details are known (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 184 CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 6 (1976), 28).

d (2) Roman Settlement (SP 614438 Fig. 73), W. of Astwell Park, on Boulder Clay, at 155 m. above OD. A scatter of Roman occupation-debris has been noted (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192 CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 6 (1976), 28). On air photographs taken in 1947 (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5) a small rectangular ditched enclosure is visible, with other ditches joining and intersecting it, and an isolated ditch further S.E.

b (3) Roman Settlement (SP 599430), E. of Falcutt House, on limestone at 145 m. above OD. Roman material has been found in this area during field-walking (Northants. Archaeol., 11 (1976), 192 CBA Group 9, Newsletter, 6 (1976), 28).

Medieval and Later

b (4) Site of Manor House and Settlement Remains (SP 589431 Figs. 74, 75 and 119), lie at the S. end of Helmdon village, on land sloping down to the N., on limestone and Boulder Clay between 128 m. and 155 m. above OD. The earthworks, which are slight and poorly preserved, are probably the site of the main medieval manor house of Overbury, with associated paddocks and ponds, together with some fragments of former housesites. The significance of the remains is topographical. They appear to be part of a neat rectangular layout, including the church and the existing houses, which forms the long S.E. extension of the modern village. Such a plan indicates that this part of the village may have been deliberately created.

Helmdon is a particularly interesting village, made up of three separate parts (Fig. 74). The N. section lies on the N. side of a small E.-flowing stream and consists of little more than a winding main street which forks at both ends. To the S. of the stream is another short length of street which also forks at its S. end. The S.E. branch climbs the valley side and then turns S. to become the axial road of a rectangular block of closes, houses, church and manor house site (Fig. 75).

Fig. 74 Helmdon (4) Village plan

The manor house site, fishponds and paddocks are bounded by an almost continuous bank and outer ditch. It is best preserved on the S. and W. where the bank is 0.5 m. high and the ditch 1 m. deep. On the E., to the S. of the church, only the bank survives and in the N.E., to the N.W. of the church, the bank is sinuous and is damaged. The site of the original manor house lies immediately E. of the present one ('a' on plan) and consists of a flat rectangular platform with low banks and ditches attached to it. To the S. there is a long narrow paddock extending the full width of the area, with slight traces of ridge-and-furrow at its W. end, and there are small paddocks further N. around the manor house. The northern part of the area is occupied by three ponds, now dry the upper two have the fragmentary remains of dams. Until recently some 25 houses and cottages stood in the rectangular area N. of the manor house site but most of the large open spaces between them have now been built over and no earthworks remain. However, on air photographs taken in 1947 (RAF VAP CPE/ UK/1926, 3219–20) banks, scarps and ditches indicative of former houses are visible in the area to the N. of the church. On the Enclosure Map (NRO, 1758) a large building is depicted in the N. half of this area and it is clear that the largest of the banks visible on air photographs was the boundary between two closes. The limits of the rectangular area are marked by a modern hedge on a large bank, except at the N.E. corner ('b' on plan) where part of the original N. side survives as a low bank running E.

Fig. 75 Helmdon (4) Site of manor house and settlement remains

The tenurial history of Helmdon is complex and it is not clear how this southern extension of the village originated or functioned. Certainly by the early 15th century Helmdon had three manors, Overbury, Middlebury and Netherbury, of which the first and principal manor, through its association with Worcester College, Oxford, can be assigned to the site described here (J. Bridges, Hist. of Northants., I (1791), 172–3 OS Record Cards). There is apparently nothing in the parish church earlier than the 14th century, though its position on the hill-top might suggest an older foundation. In 1086 Helmdon is listed in Domesday Book as a single manor with a recorded population of 11 (VCH Northants. I (1902), 322) but in 1301 50 people paid the Lay Subsidy Tax (PRO, E179/155/31) and in 1334 the vill paid 61s. 7¾d., one of the largest amounts in the area (PRO, E179/155/3). The 1377 Poll Tax returns record that 52 people over the age of 14 were living at Helmdon (PRO, E179/155/27) and in 1524 35 people paid the Lay Subsidy (PRO, E179/155/159).

b (5) Deserted Village of Falcutt (SP 595427 Figs. 76 and 119), lies S.E. of Helmdon village, on either side of a small N.E.-flowing stream, on limestone at 145 m. above OD. Falcutt was one of two separate settlements within the old parish of Falcutt and Astwell and was for a long time associated with Astwell (6), now also deserted. It may once have had its own associated land unit separate from that of Astwell, but this is not proven. Falcutt is first mentioned in 1220 (PN Northants., 47), but is probably included silently in Domesday Book under Astwell which is listed as a single manor with an unusually large recorded population of 17 (VCH Northants., I (1902), 344). It is mentioned by name in the Nomina Villarum of 1316 but is usually combined with Astwell in the national taxation records. In 1301 the Lay Subsidy lists 35 taxpayers in the two places (PRO, E179/155/31) and in 1334 they paid a total of 60s. 9d. tax (PRO, E179/155/3). The 1377 Poll Tax Returns record that 57 people over the age of 14 lived at Astwell and Falcutt (PRO, E179/155/28). In 1524 10 people in Falcutt paid the Lay Subsidy (PRO, E179/155/ 146) and by 1674 only 11 people in the two places paid the Hearth Tax (PRO, E179/254/14). Bridges (Hist. of Northants., I (1791), 214) recorded four houses at Astwell in the early 18th century but described Falcutt as only a hamlet. By the early 19th century Falcutt consisted of five or six houses (1st ed. OS 1 in. map, 1833). Whellan stated (Dir., 502) that it contained 15 houses in 1841, but this presumably included several outlying farms. Whellan also noted that there were only nine houses in 1871 as several had been demolished in the previous 20 years. Certainly in 1864 (map in NRO) only the existing Falcutt House and the cottage to the S. remained (K. J. Allison et al., The Deserted Villages of Northants. (1966), 39). In 1535 a chapel was recorded at Falcutt, but it had been demolished by 1655 (G. Baker, Hist. of Northants., I (1822–30), 737).

Fig. 76 Helmdon (5) Deserted village of Falcutt

Fig. 77 Helmdon (6) Deserted village of Astwell, (7) Fishponds, (8) Windmill mound, (9) Garden remains, (10) Mill leats and ponds

Very little survives of this settlement on the ground. Immediately S.E. of the garden of Falcutt House (SP 59474280) is a paddock with earthworks within it. These include at least one old hedge-bank, several relatively recent drainage ditches and some shallow areas of quarrying. No former house-sites can be clearly identified, though it is said that in about 1900 it was possible to see stone-rubble foundations of at least two cottages which had stood in the S.W. of the paddock alongside the lane to Falcutt House (local inf.). Disturbed ground further S.W. may also be the sites of former buildings (SP 59504273). At the S.E. end of the area, at SP 595427, building-debris and unspecified pottery is recorded on land now under arable (OS Record Cards). Air photographs taken in 1947 (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3220–1) show ditches and banks here, prob ably the sites of at least two or three former houses which had already been ploughed over. On the N. edge of the site, immediately E. of the modern farm buildings (SP 595431), are the fragmentary remains of at least three rectangular closes, bounded by low banks and scarps badly damaged by later tracks and quarrying. The easternmost close has ridge-and-furrow within it and all are edged on the N. and E. by normal ridge-and-furrow of open-field type. The 1864 map records the name Chapel Close for the paddock W. of Falcutt House (SP 593428). However, it is entirely covered by ridge-and-furrow and no possible chapel site is visible. (CUAP, ANT72)

d (6) Deserted Village of Astwell (SP 609441 Figs. 77 and 119), lies immediately N.E. of Astwell Castle, on the E. slopes of a N.-draining valley, on limestone and clay between 122 m. and 132 m. above OD. The lands of Astwell and of the village of Falcutt (5), also now deserted, made up the old parish of Astwell and Falcutt. Astwell may once have had its own land unit separate from that of Falcutt but there is no evidence for this and the two settlements are usually listed together in the national taxation records. The relevant figures for 1086, 1301, 1334 and 1337 are given in (5) above. From these it would appear that Astwell remained in existence until after 1377.

In 1471 the manor of Astwell together with Falcutt passed to the Lovett family and the manor house was rebuilt. The embattled gate-tower as well as other parts of the building still survive and are now called Astwell Castle. By 1524 only nine people at Astwell paid the Lay Subsidy (PRO, E179/155/146) and in 1547 Thomas Lovett created a deer park, probably on the site of the village. At the same time 300 sheep were being kept on Astwell Pasture (K. J. Allison et al., The Deserted Villages of Northants. (1966), 35). In 1674 11 people in Astwell and Falcutt paid the Hearth Tax (PRO, E179/254/14) and Bridges (Hist. of Northants., I (1791), 214), writing in about 1720, recorded only four houses at Astwell. As one of these was the manor house and another the mill the village had certainly been abandoned by this date.

The remains of the village are in very poor condition and little can be learned from what survives. Indeed, the area of the former village can only be ascertained from the limits of the ridge-and-furrow on the E. This lack of identifiable earthworks is due to the varied use of the site since desertion. A small deer park was created in 1547 N. of Astwell Castle, on the site of the former village, and in the late 16th or early 17th century a formal garden was constructed (9). A landscaped park of the later 17th century also involved the construction of earthworks and further large-scale engineering works took place, perhaps in the 19th century, when new ponds and leats to Astwell Mill were constructed 450 m. to the N. of the Castle. Extensive land-drainage work in recent years has caused further damage and the E. part of the site has been completely destroyed by modern cultivation.

There is considerable evidence that the village lay N.E. of Astwell Castle. To the E. of and crossing the track to Flacutt there were, until recent destruction, two large banks running N.-S. which separated an area of disturbed ground and former closes ('a' on plan) from the ridge-and-furrow to the E. Medieval pottery of the 12th to 14th centuries has been found in this area. Within a pasture field to the W. are traces of what may once have been a hollow-way ('b' on plan). Its E. side is a largely natural scarp still 2 m. high, but its W. side is now a low scarp only 0.25 m. high. At its N. end this appears to join the existing road to Wappenham. Further S. are a number of low banks and scarps which may be the remains of former closes ('c' on plan). The rest of the village, if it extended further W. down the valley side, has been destroyed by the gardens (9), mill leats and modern drainage works. (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5 CUAP, NU94, ANT71)

d (7) Fishponds (SP 607443 Fig. 77), lie N. of Astwell Castle, in the valley of a N.-flowing stream, on alluvium at 114 m. above OD. After modern drainage, ploughing and reseeding, all that remains are two roughly rectangular areas bounded by scarps and banks less than 0.25 m. high, with two small rectangular depressions at the S. end. Before destruction, however, the surrounding banks are said to have been 'very high' (local inf.) and they are clearly visible on air photographs taken in 1947, together with an inlet leat or ditch along the S. side (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5). The banks are undoubtedly the remains of a set of medieval fishponds, perhaps associated with Astwell village or its manor house. Ponds of this type, set in a flat valley floor and bounded by large banks, have been noted elsewhere (e.g. RCHM Northants., II (1978), Cogenhoe (12)). (CUAP, NU94)

d (8) Windmill Mound (?) (SP 610441 Fig. 77), lay E. of Astwell Castle, on a W.-facing slope, on limestone at 132 m. above OD. Air photographs taken before total destruction by ploughing (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5) show a low mound 10 m. in diam., surrounded by a shallow ditch which the adjacent ridge-and-furrow appeared to avoid. It is not certain whether this was a windmill mound or had another function.

d (9) Garden Remains (SP 608440 and 608442 Fig. 77), lie around Astwell Castle, on limestone between 122 m. and 130 m. above OD. The manor of Astwell passed into the hands of the Lovett family in 1471 and parts of the Castle, in particular the embattled gate-tower, date from that period. The village of Astwell (6) was probably cleared away soon afterwards and in 1547 a small deer park was created over its site to the N.E. of the Castle. The manor later passed to the Shirley family and about 1606 George Shirley added a large house arranged around a courtyard, to the S.W. and W. of the earlier building. Of this house only a fragment now survives, but traces of what seem to be contemporary gardens still remain to the S. These ('d' on plan) consist of at least four rectangular areas edged by scarps between 0.5 m. and 2 m. high, set to one side of the 17th-century house and extending up the hillside to the S.E. This plan suggests a late 16th or early 17th-century date.

To the N.E. of the Castle, in the area of the former village, there are further earthworks which are also undoubtedly the remains of gardens or of landscaping. These are more difficult to date but are perhaps of the later 17th or early 18th century. The most notable feature, until it was partly destroyed, was a large roughly U-shaped pond, which was of such a size that it was shown on the OS County Series 25 in. plans ('OS' on plan). A broad terrace some 10 m. across and bounded by low scarps ('e' on plan) continues N.E. on the alignment of the N.W. side of the pond. At its N.E. end the terrace narrows into a low bank. The feature has the appearance of a driveway leading to the Castle, but because of the existence of the pond at its S.W. end this is unlikely. A more plausible explanation is that it marks an avenue of trees which lay across the park. Between the Castle and the ponds surveyed by the OS there are further depressions but these are so mutilated that their origins cannot be ascertained. (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5, CUAP, NU94)

d (10) Mill Leats and Ponds (SP 603439–608444 partly on Fig. 77), extend along the E. side of a N.-draining valley, to the S.W., W. and N. of Astwell Castle, on clay at 116 m. above OD. The leats represent at least two separate stages in the process of supplying water to Astwell Mill which lies further N., on the Helmdon-Wappenham Road. The earliest feature is a broad leat 10 m. wide with an embanked lower side which runs off the existing stream well to the S.W. of the castle and extends N.E. roughly parallel to the stream ('f' on plan). At its N.E. end it once ran into the westernmost of the two existing mill ponds. A second leat ('g') runs parallel to and above the one already described, to a point just N.W. of the castle where it turns and continues inside the old one. This leat is shown on all except the most modern OS maps and plans as carrying water, but is now a narrow dry ditch only 7 m. across. To the W. of Astwell Castle a track crosses the new leat on a small 19th-century brick bridge. The same track crosses the old leat on a blocking causeway. Other ditches in the general area also appear to have been used to supply the mill with water. For example an embanked ditch immediately W. of Astwell Castle ('h' on plan) carried water across the hillside from a spring, and further N. at least one other ditch ('i' on plan) had the same function. (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5 CUAP, NU94)

d (11) Moat and Fishponds (SP 615430 Figs. 78 and 79), known as Old Mountains, lie in the E. of the parish, in the bottom of a broad shallow S.-draining valley, on Boulder Clay at 145 m. above OD. The earthworks lie near the W. edge of the deer park (12) and were perhaps the site of a park keeper's lodge. The moated site is a roughly rectangular flat island 0.5 m.–1 m. above the surrounding land and separated from the adjacent ditch on the N., E. and S. by a bank only 0.5 m. high. The ditch is 1.5 m. deep on the E. and 2 m. deep on the N., but appears to have been filled in on the S. The W. side of the site is difficult to understand and may be the result of later alterations. The ditch here is 1.5 m. deep and runs obliquely N.N.E.-S.S.W., with no trace of an inner bank. To the E. of the ditch there are two rectangular depressions, perhaps former ponds, and to the W. there is a triangular area 1.5 m. high. This may be the original W. edge of the site detached from the main part by the later ditch. At the S.W. corner is a large circular mound almost 2 m. high, linked to the corner of the moat by low causeways. The moat was apparently filled by a small stream which entered it in the N.W. corner.

To the S.W. of the moat there was a fishpond, perhaps contemporary. The field in which it lay was called Pool Meadow in 1864 (map in NRO) and this field is bounded on the S. by a dam ('b' on plan) spanning the valley. On the E. side of the stream, which is now culverted, the dam is a massive bank nearly 3 m. high, but its E. end has been destroyed and only its outer face remains as a low scarp. To the W. of the stream the dam has been ploughed down and survives only as a broad bank 1.5 m. high. Old OS plans show a ditch at its W. end ('c' on plan) which continued the line of the dam and then returned E. before curving back N.W. This feature has now been completely destroyed by modern cultivation but the OS plans have been followed on Fig. 78. However, there is some doubt whether it was a ditch as depicted, for air photographs taken in 1947 before the destruction was complete (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224–5) appear to show a massive E.-facing scarp. Whatever its original form the feature probably marked the W. edge of the pond. When filled this pond probably extended E. to a broad low scarp N.E. of the dam and to the S. of the moat. It also probably extended northwards beyond a low bank ('d' on plan), now ploughed down, which runs from the S.W. corner of the moat in a westerly direction. This bank can be traced for some 300 m. until it meets the W. side of the deer park. The chronological relationship of the bank to the moat and the pond is not clear. It appears to be the boundary of a close or field within the deer park (see (12) below). The probable E. boundary of this close runs N. from the N.W. corner of the moat ('e' on plan) and is now almost ploughed away but, according to old OS plans, it consisted of a low bank with a ditch on its E. side and ran N. for 460 m. until it met the boundary of the deer park near the N.W. corner of the latter.

To the S.E. of the moat a hollow-way up to 2 m. deep ('f' on plan) runs S.W. to meet the E. end of the dam ('b' on plan). At its E. end it fades out and can be traced only for 200 m. The relationship of the hollow-way to the pond is difficult to understand the two cannot have been in use at the same time.

d (12) Deer Park (centred SP 623433 Figs. 78 and 79) occupied a large area in the E. of the parish and apparently extended eastwards into the N.W. part of Syresham parish. No record of its existence has been noted in medieval documents and the park created in 1547 by Sir Thomas Lovett of Astwell probably lay to the N. of Astwell Castle on the site of the former village (6) (K. J. Allison et al., The Deserted Villages of Northants. (1966). 35). Field names on a map of 1864 (NRO) and the modern names Astwell Park and Astwell Park Farm, as well as the surviving earthworks, prove beyond doubt that a deer park once lay here. The moated site (11) situated towards the W. edge of the park presumably represents a park keeper's lodge.

Fig. 78 Helmdon (11) Moat and fishponds

The park covers around 200 hectares, entirely on Boulder Clay, between 137 m. and 157 m. above OD. Before modern destruction it was bounded by an almost continuous bank. The bank formerly ran S.E. across the centre of a long narrow field immediately E. of Astwell Park (SP 622436). This part of it has now been destroyed, but on air photographs taken in 1947 it is clearly visible, with traces of an internal ditch. At the Syresham parish boundary (SP 627434) it fades, to recommence 200 m. to the E., in Syresham parish, as a broad hedge-bank up to 5 m. wide and 1 m. high, curving S.E. parallel to the modern road (SP 628434–632431). The next section is lost, in a field with 19th-century broad ridge-and-furrow across it, but the boundary reappears S. of Wild House (SP 633430) as a large hedge-bank which runs S.W. to a point a little N. of Syresham village (SP 628423) and then turns until it meets the Helmdon parish boundary (SP 623426). The bank then follows the irregular parish boundary until it meets the stream flowing S. from the moated site (11) (SP 616426). At this point the park boundary continues W. and then swings N. in a broad curve until it reaches a droveway running S.W. from Astwell Park (SP 612433). The bank, here 1 m. high, runs N.E. along the S.E. side of the droveway but, at the bend in the droveway (at SP 616435). continues N.E. in a sinuous line. Here it has again been ploughed out but it certainly once had an inner ditch. The bank met the Astwell-Syresham road (at SP 619438) where it turned E. and ran to Astwell Park.

Fig. 79 Helmdon (12) Deer park at Astwell

The interior of the park is divided into fields, many with hedges on large banks, and a number of other banks, now either partly or completely ploughed out, are visible on air photographs. These suggest that the park was once divided into a number of large closes of unknown purpose. One bank runs N. from the N.W. corner of the moated site (11) to meet the park boundary in the N.W. corner (SP 616435) and another runs W. from the moat to the W. side of the park (SP 612430). A third can be seen on air photographs, curving S.W. and then W. from Astwell Park, and traces of another run S. from Astwell Park to meet a bank approaching from the S.W. (RAF VAP CPE/UK/1926, 3224– 6, 5224–6)

(13) Cultivation Remains. The common fields of the former parish of Helmdon were enclosed by an Act of Parliament of 1758 (NRO, Enclosure Map). Nothing is known of the arrangement of these fields but it is possible that at some time there were two separate field systems, associated with the two assumed early settlements which together make up the village of Helmdon. These lands may have been two parts of the original parish, N. and S. of the main stream (Fig. 119).

Ridge-and-furrow of these fields exists on the ground or can be traced on air photographs over much of the old parish. In the S. part the pattern is almost complete, but in the N. it is less so. The ridge-and-furrow is arranged in end-on and interlocked furlongs, many of reversed-S form. A number of former headlands is still traceable as broad low banks up to 20 m. wide (SP 590445). In some places there is considerable variation in ridge width for example S. of Allithorne Wood (SP 585448) four blocks of relatively narrow ridges only 4 m. across are separated by single broad ridges 8 m.–9 m. wide. This is an unusual system and may indicate a late stage in strip division in this parish.


I'm getting Key error in python

A KeyError generally means the key doesn't exist. So, are you sure the path key exists?

From the official python docs:

exception KeyError

Raised when a mapping (dictionary) key is not found in the set of existing keys.

So, try to print the content of meta_entry and check whether path exists or not.

I fully agree with the Key error comments. You could also use the dictionary's get() method as well to avoid the exceptions. This could also be used to give a default path rather than None as shown below.

and don't use searching in key list

The latter will be more time-consuming.

Yes, it is most likely caused by non-exsistent key.

In my program, I used setdefault to mute this error, for efficiency concern. depending on how efficient is this line

I am new to Python too. In fact I have just learned it today. So forgive me on the ignorance of efficiency.


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    Medieval Engineers is all about building and the options are unlimited. Build anything from houses and castles to wagons and catapults.
  • FULLY INTERACTABLE WORLD
    Change, pick up and interact with everything includes plants, bushes, trees, animals, and the ground itself. Everything is interactable and destructible!
  • VOXEL TERRAFORMING
    Make the ground into any shape you want. Use a pickaxe to dig and mine in the ground or use the special voxel tools to reshape the land.
  • LIMITLESS EXPLORATION
    Play in a volumetric open world environment and explore a whole planet. Find valuable defensible areas or go to battle alongside your allies to take enemy lands and secure resources. The planet is full life including trees, plants, animals, and savage barbarian warriors.
  • INTEGRITY AND DESTRUCTION
    Build with structural integrity. Make buildings too tall and they will collapse! Design your structures carefully keeping in mind the differences between wood and stone. Use Structural Integrity View to find weak points in real-time. When the supports fail buildings come crashing down in glorious real-time destruction!

Please be sure to read the list of current features before you buy the game. It will give you an insight on what is or isn't actually working: http://www.medievalengineers.com/featuresMedieval Engineers is in development and undergoing frequent optimizations. The performance will get better. The performance depends on the complexity of your world and the configuration of your computer. Simple worlds run smoothly even on low-end computers, but a more complex world with rich object interactions could overload even high-end computers.
Minimum requirements represent the bare minimum to run simple scenes and don’t guarantee a perfect experience.

Medieval Engineers Deluxe DLC offers you access to the soundtrack of the game. Listen to the music of the game in high quality wherever you want!
You will also unlock a special bonus banner layer, for use on your banners in the game. Show the world your love for the game.

TRAILER DE GAMEPLAY - Medieval Engineers (Deluxe Edition)


Before You Begin

Limitations and Restrictions

The actual number of query requests can exceed the value set in max worker threads in which case SQL Server pools the worker threads so that the next available worker thread can handle the request. A worker thread is assigned only to active requests and is released once the request is serviced. This happens even if the user session/connection on which the request was made remains open.

The max worker threads server configuration option does not limit all threads that may be spawned inside the engine. System threads required for tasks such as LazyWriter, Checkpoint, Log Writer, Service Broker, Lock Manager, or others are spawned outside this limit. Availability Groups use some of the worker threads from within the max worker thread limit but also use system threads (see Thread Usage by Availability Groups ) If the number of threads configured is being exceeded, the following query will provide information about the system tasks that have spawned the additional threads.

Recommendations

This option is an advanced option and should be changed only by an experienced database administrator or certified SQL Server professional. If you suspect that there is a performance problem, it is probably not the availability of worker threads. The cause is more likely related to activies that occupy the worker threads and do not release them. Examples include long-running queries or bottlenecks on the system (I/O, blocking, latch waits, network waits) that cause long-waiting queries. It is best to find the root cause of a performance issue before you change the max worker threads setting. For more information on assessing performance, see Monitor and tune for performance.

Thread pooling helps optimize performance when a large number of clients connect to the server. Usually, a separate operating system thread is created for each query request. However, with hundreds of connections to the server, using one thread per query request can consume large amounts of system resources. The max worker threads option enables SQL Server to create a pool of worker threads to service a larger number of query requests, which improves performance.

The following table shows the automatically configured number of max worker threads (when value is set to 0) based on various combinations of CPUs, computer architecture, and versions of SQL Server, using the formula: Default Max Workers + ((logical CPUs - 4) * Workers per CPU).

Number of CPUs 32-bit computer (up to SQL Server 2014 (12.x)) 64-bit computer (up to SQL Server 2016 (13.x) SP1) 64-bit computer (starting with SQL Server 2016 (13.x) SP2 and SQL Server 2017 (14.x))
<= 4 256 512 512
8 288 576 576
16 352 704 704
32 480 960 960
64 736 1472 1472
128 1248 2496 4480
256 2272 4544 8576

Up to SQL Server 2016 (13.x) SP1, the Workers per CPU only depend on the architecture (32-bit or 64-bit):

Number of CPUs 32-bit computer 1 64-bit computer
<= 4 256 512
> 4 256 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 8) 512 2 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 16)

Starting with SQL Server 2016 (13.x) SP2 and SQL Server 2017 (14.x), the Workers per CPU depend on the architecture and number of processors (between 4 and 64, or greater than 64):

Number of CPUs 32-bit computer 1 64-bit computer
<= 4 256 512
> 4 and <= 64 256 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 8) 512 2 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 16)
> 64 256 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 32) 512 2 + ((logical CPU's - 4) * 32)

1 Starting with SQL Server 2016 (13.x), SQL Server can no longer be installed on a 32-bit operating system. 32-bit computer values are listed for the assistance of customers running SQL Server 2014 (12.x) and earlier. We recommend 1,024 as the maximum number of worker threads for an instance of SQL Server that is running on a 32-bit computer.

2 Starting with SQL Server 2017 (14.x), the Default Max Workers value is divided by 2 for machines with less than 2GB of memory.

When all worker threads are active with long running queries, SQL Server might appear unresponsive until a worker thread completes and becomes available. Although this is not a defect, it can sometimes be undesirable. If a process appears to be unresponsive and no new queries can be processed, then connect to SQL Server using the dedicated administrator connection (DAC), and kill the process. To prevent this, increase the number of max worker threads.

Security

Permissions

Execute permissions on sp_configure with no parameters or with only the first parameter are granted to all users by default. To execute sp_configure with both parameters to change a configuration option or to run the RECONFIGURE statement, a user must be granted the ALTER SETTINGS server-level permission. The ALTER SETTINGS permission is implicitly held by the sysadmin and serveradmin fixed server roles.


Continued evidence of interest in Great Parchment Book and the history of the Plantation

The Great Parchment Book blog has been rather quiet over the last few months, but that’s not to say that interest in the content and the project has declined. To the contrary, the Great Parchment Book continues to prove relevant to research in the UK and across the globe. Page views to the Great Parchment Book website have now exceeded 160,000 and downloads of the XML data are also steadily increasing in number.

And it’s also good news for our partners Derry City & Strabane Museum and Visitor Services. Statistics recently received record that to 31 December 2017 nearly one and a half million visits (1,479,598 to be precise) had been made to the to the Plantation, People, Perspectives exhibition in Derry Guildhall. Just to put this in perspective and indicate the impact of the exhibition, this figure is many times the population of Derry itself and more than three quarters of the population of Northern Ireland. The exhibition is still going strong and we look forward to this year’s figures.

So, if you have done research based on the Great Parchment Book, why not share it more widely on this blog? Please contact the editor via [email protected] for more information.

And finally, here are the updated statistics for the Great Parchment Book by numbers:

  • 1 Great Parchment Book of The Honourable The Irish Society
  • 165 folios and fragments, stored in 30 bespoke boxes (originally 16)
  • 11 Great Twelve livery companies’ holdings recorded (should be 12, but the Merchant Taylors’ portion is missing)
  • 1095 personal names indexed on the website including variations in spelling
  • 992 place names indexed also including variations
  • 49 occupations and titles recorded such as barber-surgeon, fellmonger, muster master and winecowper
  • 120 entries in the glossary including occupations and titles, but also terms such as ballibetagh, creete, kill house, rampier, standall and vayle
  • Over 160,000 page views of Great Parchment Book website and blog to 9 November 2018
  • 148 blog posts published including this one
  • 270,000 visitors to Plantation, People, Perspectives exhibition in Derry Guildhall in the first year (opened 30 May 2013) when an original folio of the Great Parchment Book was on display. Nearly one and a half million visitors (1,479,598 to be precise) to the exhibition to 31 December 2017 (many times the population of Derry and over three quarters of the population of Northern Ireland). Still going strong.
  • 37 downloads in 7 countries across 3 continents of the Open Access set of 326 XML documents containing encoded transcriptions of the individual folios (2.56MB of data)
  • 6 presentations about the project in countries outside the UK across 3 continents, and innumberable links from other websites across the world
  • 20 project partners including 14 funders
  • 4 awards, 3 shortlisted/finalist, 1 highly commended
  • 1 inscription on UK Memory of the World Register (inscribed on 21 June 2016)

All summed up as 1 unique record of the 17th century Plantation of Ulster.


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Contents

Territory Edit

Alcamo is situated in the middle of the Gulf of Castellammare, at 258 metres above the sea level and at the foot of Mount Bonifato, a calcareous complex 825 metres high. At the altitude of 500 metres (near the "Funtanazza") there is the Nature Reserve of Monte Bonifato.

The territory of Alcamo includes also Alcamo Marina, mainly used as a summer resort.

Climate Edit

The climate is mild, with higher rainfall during winter than summer. [5]

The average annual temperature is 16.9 °C, [5] with higher temperatures in August (24.8 °C) [5] and lower temperatures in February (10.3 °C). [5]

The average annual rainfall is 558 mm. [5] Rainfall is particularly scarcer in July (4 mm) [5] and more abundant in December (83 mm). [5]

Climate data for Alcamo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
13.2
(55.8)
14.8
(58.6)
17.5
(63.5)
21.5
(70.7)
25.4
(77.7)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
25.9
(78.6)
21.7
(71.1)
17.7
(63.9)
14.4
(57.9)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
10.3
(50.5)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57.0)
17.6
(63.7)
21.4
(70.5)
24.5
(76.1)
24.8
(76.6)
22.4
(72.3)
18.6
(65.5)
14.8
(58.6)
11.8
(53.2)
16.9
(62.3)
Average low °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
7.5
(45.5)
8.6
(47.5)
10.4
(50.7)
13.8
(56.8)
17.5
(63.5)
20.5
(68.9)
21.0
(69.8)
18.9
(66.0)
15.5
(59.9)
12.0
(53.6)
9.2
(48.6)
13.6
(56.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72
(2.8)
60
(2.4)
52
(2.0)
48
(1.9)
21
(0.8)
9
(0.4)
4
(0.2)
14
(0.6)
37
(1.5)
78
(3.1)
80
(3.1)
83
(3.3)
558
(22.1)
Source: Climate-Data.org [6]
  • Seismic classification: zone 2 (medium-high seismicity), Ordinance PCM 3274 (20 March 2003)
  • Climatic classification: zone B, 1140 degree day[7]
  • Köppen climatic classification: CSa[5]
  • Atmospheric diffusivity: low, Ibimet CNR 2002

Etymology Edit

There are discordances about the etymology of the toponym "Alcamo": one of the hypothesis connects the present name to the Arab word al-qama, which would mean "muddy earth" or "rich soil", [8] another supposition is that it had been derived from the name of the Muslim leader who probably founded the town in 828 AD and whose name was al-Qāmūq (in Arabic: القاموق). According to some people this hypothesis was invented by Leo Africanus who had told this story without consulting any document on the subject. [9] Besides, according to some scholars, the name Alcamo would derive from caccamu, a dialectal word referring to the plant Citrullus colocynthis. [8]

Prehistory Edit

Though there is little information about it, there are evidences that territory of Alcamo was inhabited even in prehistoric times in one of the most ancient sites, near "contrada" Molinello (a country district), they discovered archaeological findings dating back to the Mesolithic, approximately 9,000–6,000 BC [10] and other very old ones dating back to the Neolithic during the archaeological excavations done by the archaeologist Paolo Orsi (1899) and the marquis Antonio De Gregorio (1917) near the river Fiume Freddo. [11] One of the most important finds is an axe from the Neolithic, kept at the Museo archeologico regionale Paolo Orsi of Syracuse. [10]

Longuro and Longarico Edit

From the quotations by Lycophron we know that in old times there was an inhabited centre called "Longuro" on Mount Bonifato. [12] According to an old story, this settlement was founded by a Greek colony which had escaped from the destruction of the town of Troy. [13]

During the Roman period the inhabitants of Longuro moved to the foot of the mountain so they could practice agriculture in the surrounding lands. [12] The town was called Longaricum [12] this name appears in the Itinerario di Antonino Pio (=Itinerary of Antoninus Pius, in the 3rd century AD) [12] and would coincide with the Latin name of Longuro. [14]

According to a supposition the two hillocks appearing on the gonfalon of Alcamo would represent both the towns of Longaricum and Longuro.

Origins Edit

Alcamo was founded in 828 by the Muslim commander al-Kamuk (after whom it is probably named), though other sources date its origin to about 972.

The first document mentioning Alcamo is dating back to 1154, in a paper written by the Berber geographer Idrisi who was given this task by Roger II of Sicily [15] in order to get a collection of geographic maps. From a distance longer than an Arab mile, the writer describes the position of Alcamo viewed from the Castle of Calatubo (visible even today from the town territory) and defines it as a "manzil", that is a hamlet or a group of houses with rich soil and a flourishing market. [15] This hamlet was called "Alqamah" by Arabs. [16] In a diary of 1185 the Andalusian pilgrim Ibn Jubayr confirms the Arab origin of the town [15] in fact during his travel from Palermo to Trapani he stopped at Alcamo and describes it as a beleda (town) with mosques and a market whose inhabitants were of Muslim religion. [15]

Medieval age Edit

In the Middle Ages Alcamo was largely inhabited by Muslim people, whose numbers declined after the Norman conquest of Sicily, begun in 1060. Alcamo was divided into four hamlets named San Vito, San Leonardo, Sant'Ippolito and San Nicolò del Vauso. [17] but a series of Arab revolts between 1221 and 1243 led King Frederick II to move most of the Arab population [18] to a colony at Lucera, while Christians from Bonifato came to inhabit the town. In this period the poet Ciullo or Cielo d'Alcamo was born.

In 1340 Raimondo Peralta acquired the feud and barony of Alcamo from Peter II of Aragon. [16] [19] Then the barony passed to his son Guglielmo Peralta Sclafani, called "Guglielmone". [19] and afterwards to the Ventimiglia family (up to 1397), Giaimo de Prades (1407), the Cabrera family, the Speciale family, Pietro Balsamo prince of Roccafiorita (1618) and finally to Giuseppe Alvarez (1777). [16]

In the 14th century Alcamo had several thousands of inhabitants [20] and hundreds of them had immigrated from different parts of Sicily and Italy (in particular: Pisa, Amalfi, Bologna, Calabria, Liguria), and some also from Spain. [20] During this period, Antonello da Messina moved to Alcamo for three years (around 1438–1441) in order to learn the tanning techniques from the tanner master Guglielmo Adragna di Alcamo, [20] in fact the town was an important pole of development for commerce and handicraft. [21] In particular, it had a massive exchange of wheat and wine with the nearby towns [21] and there were also expert artisans such as bakers, blacksmiths, tanners and weavers. [21] During this century Alcamo was an important centre for wheat storage and sorting. [21] In the same period the writer Giacomo Adragna transcribed the Commentarii in Persium and Pietro d'Alcamo many works from the library of San Martino. [22]

Modern age Edit

At about the year 1500, Alcamo was under the jurisdiction of the captain of justice Ferdinando Vega, who fought against the raiding Turkish pirates. The town was surrounded by defensive embattled walls provided with four gates: [23]

  • Porta Palermo (afterwards called Porta Saccari), at the end of the present via Rossotti
  • Porta Corleone, at the end of the present via Commendatore Navarra
  • Porta di Gesù, opposite the church of Saint Mary of Jesus, next to the Franciscan friary
  • Porta Trapani (later called Porta del Collegio), at the beginning of via Commendatore Navarra.

During this period, the town was divided into four-quarters, each one associated with the name of the main church in that area: [24] [25]

  • San Giacomo de la Spada
  • San Calogero
  • San Francesco d'Assisi (or "Terra nuova" [26] )
  • Maggiore Chiesa.

The division between these quarters was coincident with the main streets of the town, that are the present Corso 6 Aprile and Via Rossotti and its continuation via dei Baroni Emanuele di San Giuseppe [24] (called incorrectly "Via Barone di San Giuseppe" [26] ).

In 1535, in coincidence with the visit of the emperor Charles V, coming back from Tunisia, the old Porta Trapani was closed and four gates were opened: [23]

  • new Porta Trapani, near the beginning of the present Corso 6 Aprile (that was called "Corso Imperiale")
  • new Porta Palermo (initially called Porta San Francesco), at the end of today's Corso 6 Aprile
  • Porta Stella, at the corner between Via Stella and Piazza Ciullo this name derives from the name of the Church of Our Lady of the Star (in Italian "Madonna della Stella"), near there
  • Porta Nuova, between the present Discesa al Santuario and Piazza della Libertà.

During the 16th century there was a development in education in Alcamo because of the construction of new schools and the activity of expert teachers, in particular the poet and scholar Sebastiano Bagolino (1562–1604). [22] [25] In 1547 the Madonna appeared to some women of the people and an image of Madonna Fons Misericordiae was discovered and worshipped as "Our Lady of Miracles". [27]

In the late 16th century, the population was decimated by an infectious disease. [28] and the victims were buried in the cemetery of Saint Ippolito. [28]

In 1667 Mariano Ballo ordered the construction of a theatre, called "teatro Ferrigno", later demolished and rebuilt during the 1960s after the reconstruction it was first called "cine-teatro Euro" and later "Teatro Cielo d'Alcamo".

During the 18th century, pestilence and popular rebellions occurred in Alcamo again. [28] On the other hand, this age was important for art because of the construction of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption (1699), designed by the architects Angelo Italia and Giuseppe Diamante. [16] Its interior was also decorated with 38 frescoes made by the Flemish painter Guglielmo Borremans between 1736 and 1737. [16] In the same period the Church of Saint Olivia was renovated, Saint Paul and Bartholomew's Church was rebuilt (1689), [28] and the Church of the Holy Crucifix (or saint Francis of Paola) was completed (1699) [29] together with the monumental church of College some decades later(1767). [29]

The population of the town, gradually recovered from the pestilence and increased to 13,000 in 1798. [28]

Contemporary age Edit

At the beginning of the 19th century Alcamo's feudal status was abolished (1812) [16] and the town became a direct royal possession. [25]

The archpriests Stefano Triolo Galifi and Giuseppe Virgilio, together with the baron Felice Pastore were members of the Sicilian Parliament as representatives of Alcamo. [29] In 1820, during a revolt, there were different murders, sacks, release of criminals from prison and a fire in the municipal archives. [30] and in 1829 many people died of cholera. [30] In 1843 the construction of the present Town Hall started, on a land of the baron Felice Pastore.

On 6 April 1860, Stefano and Giuseppe Triolo let the Italian Tricolour wave on the town hall, [30] creating groups of volunteers in order to help Giuseppe Garibaldi in the battle of Calatafimi and from Alcamo some dictatorial edicts on Victor Emmanuel II's behalf were issued. Some time later Francesco Crispi prepared the Constitution for the lands set free. Further to this event, Corso Imperiale was named Corso 6 Aprile, in memory of 6 April, in which the volunteers started to be enlisted in Alcamo. [25]

During the Unification of Italy the brothers Triolo of Sant'Anna and Giuseppe Coppola of Monte San Giuliano enlisted many citizens to fight with the Garibaldians in 1860. [16]

At the end of the 19th century, in 1897, public lighting was inaugurated in Alcamo during the traditional feast of Our Lady of Miracles. Among the most important people of this period we have to remind Don Giuseppe Rizzo, a priest who founded the bank called "Cassa Rurale e Artigiana Don Rizzo" (1902). [32]

At the beginning of the 20th century (1901–1911) the number of citizens in Alcamo diminished abruptly, partially because of the emigration of 36,718 Sicilians abroad and in particular to the United States, [33] but it is possible that the statistics about this year and the previous years were not reliable because the census was carried out without following certain criteria. [34] In the same period the cultivations in the territory of Alcamo were affected by phylloxera and two banks ("Cooperativa" and "Segestana") went bankrupt with subsequent economic difficulties for its citizens. [35]

There were also some events linked to the Mafia, such as the murder of Gaspare Cottone, a carter (1899) [32] and the death of the 19-years-old Benedetto Guastella during a fire conflict with carabinieri in 1900. [32] As the Mafia had taken power in the districts of Trapani and Alcamo, [32] the commissary Cesare Mori intervened with a series of arrests and charges against the material executors of the crimes occurred in the area [32] and finally they arrested Vincenzo and Michele Tedesco, brothers, and Baldassare Adragna, considered the heads of the gangs in Trapani's territory. [32]

During the First World War, four hundred citizens from Alcamo died [30] and the following period was characterized by poverty because of monetary inflation and banditry. In 1918 about five hundred people died because of Spanish flu [30] and in the Second World War 213 citizens from Alcamo died or were lost. [30]

The foundation of Società Elettrotecnica Palermitana, [36] whose name was changed into Società Generale Electrica della Sicilia (SGES) and which installed an important electric workroom in the district of Saint Augustine in Alcamo, dates back to the twenties. [36] The jobs inside this firm were very longed-for because it was the only firm in Trapani Province which had a Health insurance fund and granted holidays. [36] The electric workroom existed until 1963, when it was acquired by Enel and demolished. [36] During the years in which SGES operated, there was an improvement of the electric services in Alcamo's territory, owing also to the realization of several artificial lakes. [36]

During Fascism, the citizens asked the government to appoint Alcamo as the capital of the province (1930), but this request was not satisfied. [30]

On 19 August 1937 the fascist leader Benito Mussolini visited the town, crossing Corso 6 Aprile by an open car and parading through the crowd of his supporters. [37] The visit was due to the inauguration of the railway line between Trapani and Alcamo, completed in the same year. [38] Some weeks later, prince Umberto visited Alcamo too. [37]

On 21 July 1943 the American troops entered Alcamo without any opposition, [30] freeing the town from Italian Fascism. On 18 December 1944, because of the economic and social discomfort, the citizens raised up, occupied the Town Hall and put its archives on fire. [30] Since 1960 the town planning system has been greatly expanding, particularly at the foot of Mount Bonifato with the construction of Viale Europa, which is one of the most important street in Alcamo.

At about the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s there was a bloody Mafia war between the clan Greco (related to the Rimi family) and the members of the emergent Mafia of Corleone, led by the boss Vincenzo Milazzo in the territory of Alcamo. Vincenzo Milazzo received orders from Totò Riina to eliminate members of the old Mafia (in particular the member of the clan Greco) and put in command only his trusted men. Just for this reason the Greco family represented an obstacle: the cause which roused the conflict was the approaching of some members of Cosa Nostra to the rival clan of Grecos. The war bathed the town in blood for about five years and provoked tens of victims. The new Corleone's Mafia prevailed, but the cost to be paid was very high, because a lot of members of this clan died. During the same period, in which there were armed clashes between the Mafia families, at contrada Virgini in Alcamo, they discovered the biggest heroin refinery in Sicily. (1985) [39] Tens of people died in five years, and at the end the Mafia of Corleone prevailed.

While the crimes of the Mafia went on and tens of people disappeared as victims of "lupara bianca", [40] there was a religious revival which led to the birth of several Catholic associations such as Rinnovamento nello Spirito Santo, Neocatechumenal Way and the movement of Comunione e Liberazione. [41] From the last one the parish community of the Church of Jesus Christ the Redeemer originated in the district of Sant'Anna (2006). [41] This religious revival was followed by a new interest into the town's old traditions, mentioned in the works of Roberto Calia and Carlo Cataldo, historians from Alcamo. [41] Carlo Cataldo has also been prized several times both for his historical works and for his dialectal poems which tell Alcamo's folkore. [41]

In the 21st century there was a renovation of Alcamo's architectural context, thanks to the restoration of some important historical buildings such as the Castle of the Counts of Modica, the Theatre Cielo d'Alcamo, the Cine-Theatre Marconi, the Ex Jesuits' College, the Cuba delle rose (in 2013), the church of College (in 2014), the façade of Badia Nuova (in 2014) and the old Arab fountain (in 2016). Thanks also to the intervention of Fondo Ambiente Italiano, it is expected the restoration of the Castle of Calatubo its chapel and the path leading to the castle have already been cleaned by the volunteers' association "Salviamo il Castello di Calatubo" (in 2015). [42]

Among the works of revaluation of the urban areas there are the restoration of Piazza Ciullo by the architect Gae Aulenti (1996) [43] and the realization of an underground car park in Piazza Bagolino, together with the creation of the near suburban park San Francesco. The interest in environment is also associated with that in the territory, in fact, after the adhesion to the initiative "Rifiuti Zero" (Zero Rubbish), Alcamo has been considered an example to be followed for the results got between 2010 and 2013 in the field of waste sorting (raccolta differenziata). [44]

The Coat of arms of Alcamo used since the kingdom of Frederick II of Swabiais a black flying Eagle, crowned by Gold in a Silver range, with three hills below and two Golden Oaks. [45]

A sculpture of the coat of arms is put on a side wall of the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, near Porta Palermo.

Civil buildings Edit

There are several historical civil buildings in Alcamo:

    (3, Piazzetta Leopardi, near the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi (Alcamo) (in Via Mariano de Ballis): built in the 16th century, with a square tower with battlements, adorned with a round arch that contains two windows, a double lancet and one triple lancet [47] it was probably designed in 1490 by Tommaso and Pietro Oddo [26] (1500): built after the design of the architect Domenico Vitale, it has a base made with travertine and the upper part in calcarenite. It was used as a loggia from 1525 to 1767 It is located at the corner between Corso 6 Aprile and via Barone di San Giuseppe.
  • Palazzo Aversa (in via Porta Stella n°48): it has balconies in carved stone and the coat of arms, with a red lion looking at a red comet.
  • Palazzo D'Angelo (between corso 6 Aprile and via Fratelli sant'Anna), built in 1768
  • Palazzo D'Angelo (Piazza Ciullo n°12): 19th century (via Commendatore Navarra, opposite to Badia Nuova): in Liberty style, was built in the 19th century.
  • Palazzo Diana (or Termine): it is located at the corner between via Ignazio de Blasi and Corso 6 Aprile there are two small columns at the corner, one double lancet window in via De Blasi, with the Diana's coat of arms and a cornice similar to Gothic style above the door (in via Dante): built in about the 17th century [47]
  • Palazzo Ferrando-Mistretta (between via Diaz and via Sant'Oliva)
  • Palazzo Ferrara (at the corner of via Francesco Crispi and via Ruggero Settimo): in classical style, built in 1909 [47] (in via 11 Febbraio): in Baroque style, built in 1700 by the baron Agostino Fraccia [47]
  • Palazzo Guarrasi (via 15 Maggio n°15): built in the early 18th century
  • Palazzo Mistretta Galati, earlier palazzo Fraccia (between Piazza Bagolino and corso 6 Aprile): in Liberty style
  • Palazzo Morfino (via Giuseppe Fazio n°17) built in the 18th century : at the corner of via Madonna dell'Alto and via Buonarroti (in Corso 6 Aprile, near Piazza Ciullo): in neoclassic style, built at the end of the 18th century [47] Some elements of the façade are similar to those of Basilica and Palazzo Di Gregorio in via Dante.
  • Palazzo Patti (Piazza Ciullo n°24): built in the 18th century [47]
  • Palazzo Peria (corso 6 Aprile n°102, opposite Centro Congressi Marconi): built in 1700, it has two floors, restored with the system Livigny in 1806 it was the seat of the municipality [47]
  • Palazzo Pia Opera Pastore, designed by the architect Giovan Battista Palazzotto in 1872
  • Palazzo Polizzi (between corso 6 Aprile and Via Don Rizzo)
  • Palazzo Quattrocchi (built in the 18th century), at via 15 Maggio n°47 , in Corso 6 Aprile: built in 1629. Inside it there is a garden. [47] (in via Rossotti): in baroque style, built in the 18th century it has an artistic main door and some magnificent balconies with iron railings[47]
  • Palazzo Speciale (in corso 6 Aprile n°51, at the corner with via Mariano de Ballis): built at the end of the 18th centuries its balconies have wrought iron railings.
  • Palazzo Triolo (between Corso 6 Aprile and via Fratelli Sant'Anna): built at the end of the 18th century, it belonged to the barons of Sant'Anna
  • Palazzo Velez (in Via Buonarroti, behind the Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption): built between 1600 and 1700, it has an internal garden.
  • Palazzo Virgilio (between Corso 6 Aprile and via Stefano Polizzi): built at the end of the 18th century (in Piazza Ciullo): in Neoclassic style, built in 1843 [47] (between via Madonna Alto Mare, via Rossotti and via Federico II): built in 1903 in Liberty style with a Moorish trend, after a project of the architect Francesco Naselli. [47]

Religious buildings Edit

14th century Edit

  • The Church of our Lady of the Star (Chiesa di Santa Maria della Stella) which is abandoned now, was the first Mother Church of Alcamo since 1313. [48] It was located in the old district of San Vito [49] and inside it there was the painting of Our Lady of Honey (Madonna del Miele) dated 1300 and later moved into the Saints Paul and Bartholomew's Church: [50] they believe this painting is the oldest one in Alcamo. [51][52] (Ex Chiesa di San Giacomo de Spada): built before 1529, it was enlarged between 1625 and 1636. [53]

15th century Edit

    (Chiesa di San Tommaso): the date of its construction is uncertain, probably the first half of the 15th century. [54][55] It is faced by a great portal with geometrical decorations. (Chiesa di Santa Maria di Gesù): built in the 15th century and enlarged in 1762. [56] It holds the body of the Blessed Arcangelo Placenza from Calatafimi.
  • ex Church of saint Maria del Soccorso (Ex Church of Our Lady of Rescue): built in the 15th century. [57]
  • Church of saint Vito (Chiesa di San Vito): it gave the name to the ancient district of San Vito and to the street where it is located. It was already existing in 1492 and, according to Ignazio de Blasi (a historian from Alcamo), it was founded by a member of the Confraternity of the Annunciation, together with a hospital for poor people next to it. [58] It was restored in 1922 and some decades ago there is nothing old in it and today is used by Eastern Orthodox Church Christians for their rites. : quoted in a deed dated 1491, as it is affirmed by the historian Ignazio De Blasi. It is located next to the first cemetery, on the North side.

16th century Edit

    (Chiesa del Santissimo Salvatore or "Badia Grande") is very important from the artistic point of view it was built in the 14th century baroque style and rebuilt around the middle of the 15th century and between 1690 and 1697. [59] Inside it there are pictures by Novelli dating back to the mid of the 17th century. (Chiesa di Sant'Oliva) was built in 1533 and renovated in 1724. [60][61] ) Inside there are a picture by Pietro Novelli on the main altar ("Sacrificio della Messa" dated 1639) [16] and works by the Gagini. (Santuario di Maria Santissima dei Miracoli): built in 1547. [62][63] , (Chiesa del Santissimo Crocifisso): built in 1550. [64] Now it is the parish of Saint Francis of Paola (Chiesa dell'Annunziata o del Carmine): built in the 14th century, it was rebuilt in 16th and 17th centuries but collapsed in 1866. [65][66]
  • ex Church of Saint Nicholas from Bari (Ex Chiesa di San Nicolò di Bari): built in 1430, demolished and rebuilt in 1558. [67] (1589)

17th century Edit

    was realized during the 14th century and rebuilt in 1669 the present façade was realized in 1786 [68] the portal and the bell tower are the only remains from the original church of the 14th century. It is located in the centre of the town, near piazza Ciullo. The interior is tripartite and contains frescoes by Guglielmo Borremans. In the apse and side chapels there are works by Antonello Gagini, called "Madonna with the Saints Philip and James", the "Crucifix" and the "Transit of the Virgin". [16] There are also other works made by his apprentices. In a chapel there is also "The Holy Thorn". [69] In 2010 the Sacred Art Museum was opened: it contains many works from other churches. On the right, in the first chapel, there is also a modern architectural work dedicated to Don Rizzo (founder of the homonymous bank), designed by the architect Paolo Portoghesi. (Chiesa di San Francesco d'Assisi): built between the years 1224–1226, demolished and rebuilt between 1608 and 1648. [70] Inside it there are a marble ancon, probably by Domenico Gagini, and two sculptures reproducing the Maddalena and Saint Mark, both ascribed to Antonello Gagini. (Chiesa dei Santissimi Paolo e Bartolomeo) built between 1615 and 1689, [71][72] has got characteristic baroque features and holds a very ancient and valuable picture, the Madonna del Miele (made about the year 1300). (Church of Our Lady of Graces) : built in 1619 and enlarged between 1626 and 1636 [73] (Chiesa di Sant'Anna (1630–1634) [74] ) (Ex Chiesa di San Pietro): Via Barone di san Giuseppe, 19. It was built in 1367 and reconstructed in the years 1645–1649, then enlarged in 1742 after the design of Giovanni Biagio Amico, an architect. The artistic portal(1649) is on the main door.) the roof fell down because of the 1968 Belice earthquake. or Sheltered People (Chiesa del S.Angelo Custode or Chiesa delle Riparate, 1647 [75] ) , built in the 16th century in Piazza Ciullo (Ex Collegio dei Gesuiti): built in the 17th century, in the 18th century they added an arcade. or Church of Jesus (Chiesa del Collegio dei Gesuiti or Chiesa del Gesù): built between 1684 and 1767. [76][77] (Chiesa Maria della Catena): Built in 1661 it hosts a portrait of Our Lady with a Chain, ascribed to Giuseppe Renda (18th century). (Ex Chiesa di Santa Caterina del Monte di Pietà): in corso 6 Aprile, at the corner of Via Barone di San Giuseppe. Its façade, with a simple portal, was made in 1608 and the painting of Saint Catherine of Alexandria (1621), realized by Giuseppe Carrera or Giacomo Lo Verde, is now kept at the Sacred Art Museum.

18th century Edit

    (Chiesa dei Santi Cosma e Damiano or Santa Chiara): built in 1500 and rebuilt between 1721 and 1725 [78][79] ). It has a baroque style and inside it there are two sculptures by Serpotta. [80] or (Monastero di San Francesco di Paola'), not to be confused with the homonymous Church) was built in 1531, demolished in 1699 and rebuilt in the first half of the 18th century. [81][82] There are a picture by Pietro Novelli and some allegorical representations by Giacomo Serpotta. [16] (Chiesa della Santissima Trinità): 1746–1757 [83]
  • Ex Church of Ecce Homo (Ex Chiesa dell'Ecce Homo, 1750) [84] (Chiesa di Santa Maria del Rosario): built in 1660 and reconstructed in 1761. [85]

20th–21st centuries Edit

    (Santuario di Maria Santissima dell'Alto): built in 929 and reconstructed in the 20th century. [86] , on the Trunk Road 113 (strada Statale 113), just after the Autostrada A29 junction Alcamo Ovest. Built in the 1920s, it is frequented by believers in May.
  • The small Church of the Most Holy Saviour: already known in 1379, lately restored in 1942: Its façade was rebuilt in gothic style
  • The small Church of Madonna del Riposo: built in 1656 and restored in 1939, it is located at the end of the homonymous street. (Chiesa di San Giuseppe Lavoratore), built in 1947. (Chiesa delle Anime Sante del Purgatorio): built in 1813, demolished and rebuilt in 1958 [87] ) (Chiesa del Sacro Cuore): built in 1967 [88] ) (Chiesa Gesù Cristo Redentore): [89] built in 2006.

Military buildings Edit

Military buildings in Alcamo include:

  • The Castle of the Counts of Modica (or "Castle of Alcamo"): probably built in the 14th or 15th century by the Peralta family and then completed by the feudatories Enrico and Federico Chiaromonte. In 1535 the emperor Charles V lodged there. It was a possession of the Cabreras and then of the Counts of Modica, until 1812. Later, during the Reign of Italy and until 1960, it was used as a prison. It has a rhomboidal shape, with four towers: two quadrangular at the corners and the other two are connected by curtains and are cylindrical. In each tower there were a torture room for prisoners, rooms for sentinels and for passing guest sovereigns. One of the particular characteristics of the castle is given by the thick walls which bound it and that in old times defended it from the enemies' attacks extremely well. : situated on the top of Mount Bonifato. It is a medieval castle and today there are only some parts of the walls, the primary tower and the dungeons. It took the name from Enrico Ventimiglia, who declared he had built it just for defence, though according to some interpretations, it would date back to a previous period. [90]
  • The Calatubo Castle, outside the town but inside its territory and on the road leading to Palermo, is a fortress built in the early Middle Ages. The homonymous village of Calatubo stood nearby and its commerce was based on the exportation of cereals and millstones. [91] In the same place there is an old necropolis dating back to the 6th century BC. [92]
  • The watchtower located in the town centre, in Corso 6 Aprile, next to the Church of Saint Maria del Soccorso, opposite the Mother Church. Its construction dates back to 980 A.D. and is the oldest architectural work existing in Alcamo, in perfect preservation conditions. [93] Later the tower was bought by the diocese (1400) and used as a bell tower for the near Mother Church which, at the time, didn't have one. [93] They put then two bells on its top, the remaining one is on the west, while the smaller one on the north side was dismounted at about 1950 for safety reasons. [93] Inside the building you can see a stone winding staircase with 84 steps, 50 of them are original ones. [93]

Archaeological sites Edit

In the territory of Alcamo there are several and interesting archaeological sites:

  • the ruins on Mount Bonifato[12] include Funtanazza (probably used as a water reservoir), Porta Regina, the Castle of Ventimiglia, the snowfields and the remains of the ancient village of Bonifato
  • the ruins in the area of Calatubo, which include the Castle of Calatubo, the necropolis near it and the ruins of the surrounding village. [92]
  • The Cuba delle Rose, an ancien Arab cistern near the Castle of Calatubo
  • the ruins of the ancient Roman furnaces at Alcamo Marina, used to produce tiles and bricks [94]
  • the archaeological site in Contrada Mulinello, where they have discovered finds dating back to the Mesolithic period [10]
  • the area near Fiume Freddo where archaeological finds from the Neolithic have been found. [11]
  • The Geosite Travertino della Cava Cappuccini dating back to Pleistocene: [95] they discovered here the fossilized shell of a turtle, Geochelone sp, [96] the Skeleton of a dwarf elephant, dating back to 260,000 years ago, [96] and two specimens of the giant edible dormouse, red deer, and wild boar, kept at the Civic Museum of Ligny Tower of Trapani

Natural areas Edit

Among the areas of naturalistic interest near Alcamo there are the beaches of Alcamo Marina, the Nature Reserve Bosco di Alcamo on Mount Bonifato and the Segestan thermal baths. The hot springs are produced by the reclimbing of water of meteoric origin which meets the water of Fiume Caldo. [97] They are seven kilometres far from Alcamo and next to the boundary with the territory of Castellammare del Golfo, a small town which shares this naturalistic attraction with Alcamo. According to the narration given by Diodorus Siculus, they were created by the nymphs to favour Eracle's rest during his trip from Piloro to Erice. [47]

Hinterland Edit

The surrounding areas include interesting touristic and historical locations like Segesta and Gibellina. The old fishing village of Scopello, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Alcamo, has been referred to as having a remarkable seaside. Another small town considered worth visiting is Castellammare del Golfo which is between these two places.

Demographical evolution Edit

Ethnic groups and foreign minorities Edit

According to the ISTAT data of 1 January 2013, the foreign people resident in Alcamo were 1,258 people corresponding to the 2.58% of the residing population. [98] The most represented nationalities, according to the percentage on the total residing population, were: [98]

  • Romania 727 (1.62%)
  • Morocco 155 (0.34%)
  • Tunisia 118 (0.26%)
  • Albania 60 (0.13%)
  • China 31 (0.07%)
  • Poland 22 (0.05%)
  • Serbia 15 (0.03%)

The poet Cielo d'Alcamo (known also as "Ciullo d'Alcamo") was the author of the contrasto "Rosa fresca aulentissima". [25] He wrote in vernacular in the 12th century and was from Alcamo. Many important places of the town, such as the main square, the theatre and the Classical Lyceum founded in 1862, have been named after the famous poet.

From the cultural point of view, in the following centuries Alcamo saw the rise of activities connected with arts such as the construction of churches and buildings, first in the baroque and then Renaissance style, with the coming of several artists of international level: painters (like Guglielmo Borremans and the very talented Pietro Novelli from Monreale), sculptors (Antonello Gagini and Giacomo Serpotta) and other various artists who embellished the town's image.

Inside the Castle of the Counts of Modica there is a puppet theatre: it has born again thanks to the engagement of Salvatore Oliveri, the grandson of the puppet master Gaspare Canino, who worked in Alcamo for about 50 years, continuing the work of Luigi, his father. They often give performances inside the castles or in the square.

It is also noteworthy the activity of Compagnia Piccolo Teatro, a theatre company founded in 1976, which has seen the rise (and success) of some actors and theatre directors.

During the feasts in Alcamo there are often streets entertainers and pedlars selling sweets, dried fruit and different objects in their stands called "baracchelle".

Museums Edit

Inside Alcamo churches there are several artistic works. Apart from foreign artists, there were painters Giuseppe Renda and Gino Patti among the living artists Turi Simeti, Vito Bongiorno and Gisella Giovenco sculptors were Giuseppe Bambina, Pietro Montana and Nicola Rubino.

    , located inside the Ex Jesuits' College in Piazza Ciullo. : it is located inside the Ex Church of Saint James of the Sword near the Castle of the Counts of Modica and Piazza della Repubblica. It hosts a collection of 202 multiethnic instruments (collected by Professor Fausto Cannone in different parts of the world) such as: rebab, sarinda, gansira, swarpeti, bansuri, takita, marambao, vojnica e iakir. [what language is this?] : inside the Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption[99] There are many paintings, sculptures and other works coming from the town churches, dating from the 13th century to the 20th.

Media Edit

There is a local radio, Radio Alcamo Centrale, which operates in the territory since 1976. [100]

The oldest periodical in Alcamo is "Il Bonifato". [101]

The networks in Alcamo are Alpa Uno (since 1976) and Video Sicilia (since 1987).

Music Edit

There are various musical associations in Alcamo:

  • the Premiato Complesso Bandistico "Città di Alcamo", which is the oldest band in the province of Trapani, was founded in 1880 . [102] In the first years it was led by the baronGiuseppe Triolo di Sant'Anna. [102] In 1892, during a contest with the other Sicilian musical bands (and under the direction of the Maestro Raffaele Caravaglios), it won the honour Diploma and the golden Medal, that is why it is named premiato(=prized). [102]
  • The Brass Group, has been the promoter of the "Summertime Blues Festival", which was held for various consecutive years in Piazza Ciullo and where blues singers and musicians from different parts of the world took part. [103]
  • The Associazione Amici della Musica (Association of Friends of Music), founded in 1986, organizes an annual season of classical and contemporary music concerts held in Alcamo and surrounding localities. Since 1998 it has run an annual singing competition open to young opera singers of all nationalities. In 2001 the association also established the international cultural prize known as "Vissi d'Arte-Città di Alcamo". An annual prize, the "Vissi d'Arte" is awarded to individuals who have made exceptional contributions to art and society. [104]
  • The Associazione Jacopone da Todi, is a chorus founded in 1989: it has the objective of spreading the knowledge of holy art, in its different expressions the director is Gaetano Stellino, a school teacher.
  • The Coro Mater Dei is a musical association born in 1998 and made up of about 30 members it has held various concerts (especially during the Christmas holidays) in Alcamo and in the province of Trapani. The chorus master is Baldo Barone.
  • The Coro Francesca Adragna was founded in 2008 under the direction of the chorus master Maria Messana. It has a very varied repertory: arias from operettas, opera melodies, church music, Sicilian popular tunes and Neapolitan songs.

Dance Edit

There are different school dances in Alcamo, such as:

  • Whisky a Gogò: it has organized for 20 years the Concorso Nazionale coreografico Danzalcamo: Sara Renda, the ètoile at the Opéra National de Bordeaux, started his career as a dancer in this school.

Religious traditions and folklore Edit

  • 19 March: celebration in honour of Saint Joseph (novena and procession) : procession of the Dead Jesus and Our Lady of Sorrow.
  • First Sunday after Easter: Feast of Jesus Christ the Redeemer (cultural and religious event).
  • Second Sunday after Easter: celebration in honour of Saint Francis of Paola (cultural and religious event).
  • Third Sunday after Easter: Feast of Patrocinio in honour of the Holy Family (procession and lunch with the Holy Family).
  • 1 May: celebration in honour of Saint Joseph the Worker (novena and procession)
  • 13 June: celebration in honour of Saint Anthony of Padua (novena and procession)
  • 19–21 June: Celebration in honour of Maria Santissima dei Miracoli (Saint Mary of Miracles, the patron saint of Alcamo): cultural and religious events. During the feast there are a solemn procession of the Madonna's simulacrum, fireworks from the "bastione" in Piazza Bagolino and the descent of civil and political authorities to the Sanctuary of Madonna of Miracles. In the past (until 8–10 years ago) there were horse races along Corso 6 Aprile the last two times they took place in Viale Italia.
  • End of July: Saint Anne's feast with novena, procession and cultural-recreational activities.
  • 8 September (Nativity of Mary): celebrations at the Sanctuary of Most Holy Mary of the Height (Madonna dell'Alto) on the top of Mount Bonifato with dialect poems recitation and procession.
  • 7–8 December: celebration in honour of Immacolata Concezione (the Immaculate Conception): novena, pastoral melodies and procession.
  • Alcamo Christmas (concerts, outdoor performances, preparation of traditional Christmas cribs and pipers' passing).

Recreational activities Edit

  • July–August: Alcamo Estate ("sagras" or festivals, "Calici di Stelle", "Blues Festival", "Festival di Nuove Impressioni")
  • July–August: Concorso Nazionale Coreografico Danzalcamo
  • Second half of August: "Alcart – legalità e cultura" (Legality and Culture) a series of events (exhibitions, seminars, music, theatre etc.).
  • October: Concorso Internazionale per Cantanti Lirici “Città di Alcamo”, organized since 1998 by the Associazione Amici della Musica of Alcamo.
  • Second or third week-end of December: Cortiamo – International Contest of short films organized since 2006 by "Segni Nuovi" (a club of cinematographic culture within the Church of the Saints Paul and Bartholomew).

Sport events Edit

  • 2–6 January: International Costa Gaia Trophy (youth soccer tournament).
  • European lightweight title (professional boxing) was contested in Alcamo on 14 August 1991. Defending champion Antonio Renzo (from Calabria) stopped British challenger Paul Charters in the 11th round.

Local market Edit

The local market in Alcamo (called "mercatino") takes place every Wednesday morning in Via Tre Santi, near Viale Italia. [105] [106]

Some specialities of cuisine of Alcamo are:

  • Handmade maccheroni
  • Pasta with "finocchi and sarde" (wild small fennels and sardines)
  • Sausages with "cavuliceddi" (a typical Alcamo vegetable)
  • Dried filled tomatoes [107]
  • Cuddureddi (Christmas handmade fig sweets)
  • Tetù (mixed and coloured biscuits)
  • Sciù (cream sweets)
  • Muffulette (fresh cooked roll bread with ricotta or other fillings)
    (13th century), poet (1390–1460), presbyter and Franciscan friar [108] (1560–1604) poet and painter [25] (1672–1744) Flemish painter , founder of Accademia giustinianea (1675–1735) [25] (1717–1783) historian [25] (1772–1805), painter [25] (1786–1862), baron of Rincione, politician and benefactor (1819–1897), bandmaster (1842–1923), agronomist and teacher at university (1847–1906), politician and senator of Reign of Italy in the XVIII Legislature (1847–1918), historian (1850–1931), historian, school teacher, poet (1863–1912), presbyter, founder of the homonymous Cassa Rurale ed Artigiana[109] 1885–1917 poet, writer, gold medal for his military value 1885–1958, philosopher, pedagogist and university teacher (1890–1978), sculptor, painter and teacher (1893–1963), writer, anarchist (1895–1943), lawyer and politician (1900–1977), puppeteer (1902–1975), criminal (1905–1984) sculptor and painter , (1905–1994) sculptor and teacher (1905–2009) (1911–1943), priest and military chapelain, dead during World War II (1910–2009), historian, presbyter (1914–1999), lawyer and entrepreneur (1915–2004), Catholic archbishop and diplomat (1925–1993), painter (1927–2011), politician and senator. (1929), painter. , (1931–1985), senator and Undersecretary for the Arts in Fanfani 5th government. (1933), historian and poet. (1934), literary critic and academician. (1935), doctor and deputy. (1935), doctor and senator. , (1938–2017), folk Singer-songwriter, Poet and teacher (1942), Minister for the Arts in De Mita's government and teacher (1945), writer, stage director and teacher. (Ferrara, 1946) painter, stylist and publicist (1947), the first Italian woman who refused the repairing wedding. (1950), historian (1958–1995), writer and criminal (1958), politician and deputy. (1959), politician and senator. (1959), Catholic bishop. (1960), actor (1963), painter. (Maurizio 1960, Giuseppe 1969), Folk singers (1968), journalist and writer , tenor (1970) pianist and teacher (1984), politician and euroscepticeurodeputy (1991), Étoile at the Opéra National de Bordeaux.

Alcamo is one of the most important centres in Sicily for wine production, especially Bianco Alcamo D.O.C., [110] made from vineyards with espalier or "tendone" structures and using white common or bright catarratto vines, eventually associated with damaschino, grecanico and trebbiano. [47]

Besides the wine activity there are cattle and sheep breeding, olive growing (for the extraction of extra virgin olive oil), [47] cereals (particularly wheat) and the typical oval melon, with a green wrinkled peel, locally called "miluni purceddu", [47] which has the peculiarity that can be kept longer than other kinds of melon. [47]

In the primary sector it is also significant quarrying (of different marbles and mostly travertino), though the tertiary sector (more or less advanced) has however got the majority of employed people.

There are two motorway junctions from A29 motorway Palermo-Mazara del Vallo: Alcamo Est and Alcamo Ovest, apart the junction of Castellammare del Golfo which links up with the north entrance to Alcamo. Another motorway junction is from Alcamo Ovest (A29 motorway, diramazione Alcamo-Trapani). Alcamo is crossed by two National Roads: strada statale 113, connecting Trapani with Messina, and strada statale 119, connecting Alcamo with Castelvetrano. The Railway line doesn't pass through the town centre but along the coast, then inland on the west side. The railway station of Alcamo Diramazione is located near the motorway junction of Alcamo Ovest and the station of Castellammare del Golfo is situated in the territory of Alcamo, precisely at Alcamo Marina.

These State Highways (or National Roads) pass through Alcamo:

  • SS 113 Settentrionale Sicula
  • SS 119 of Gibellina
  • SS 187 of Castellammare del Golfo
  • SS 731 Link Road (Bretella) of Castellammare del Golfo
  • SS 732 Link Road (Bretella) of Alcamo Est
  • SS 733 Link Road (Bretella) of Alcamo Ovest.
  • SR 2 Parti Piccolo-Quaranta Salme-Croce di Fratacchia
  • SR 3 Alcamo-Giardinaccio-Rocche Cadute-San Nicola
  • SR 5 Bivio Quaranta Salme-Bivio Sant'Anna
  • SR 6 of Calatubo
  • SR 8 Amburgio-Morfino-Rincione-Coda di Volpe.

And also these Provincial Roads (SP) of the province of Trapani pass through Alcamo:

  • SP 10 for Camporeale
  • SP 33 of Fiumefreddo
  • SP 47 for Alcamo-Station of Castellammare del Golfo
  • SP 49 for Passofondo
  • SP 55 Alcamo-Alcamo Marina.
  • SP 64 Quattrovie.

In the area of Alcamo there are also the following draining roads of the province of Trapani:

Along the National Road Palermo-Sciacca (SS 624) there is the exit "Alcamo" in both directions and is about 30 km from on the south-west side of the town. This exit, wholly located in the territory of Poggioreale, connects with the National Road of Gibellina (SS 119) near the ex railway station and motorway junction of Gallitello through the Provincial road SP9 (of the series n.182 Macchia-Sella-Bonfalco) and the SB0 (a local link road of Gibellina), to the border between the territories of Poggioreale and Monreale.

Alcamo is about 40 km from the airport "Falcone-Borsellino Airport" of Palermo-Punta Raisi and about 50 km from the "Vincenzo Florio Airport" of Trapani-Birgi.

Twin towns Edit

The most popular and practised sport in Alcamo, as in most Italian towns, has always been soccer the greatest team is the Alcamo team, which was in the past a protagonist in some football seasons in League C (Italian Serie C), for its victories against Bari and Crotone, and in League D. Apart various regional trophies, it has won the Coppa Italia Dilettanti in 1996 and the subsequent Supercoppa Italiana Dilettanti. Together with the golden period in League C, these were the most notable pages of the football history in Alcamo. [ citation needed ] A recent [ when? ] society crisis has caused bankruptcy and the team which played in League D had to restart from the First Category League. Today it competes in the regional Eccellenza championship following the 2010 refoundation. The activity of juvenile soccer is very active, and the Adelkam football school emerges among the various youth teams because it has launched different football players and has won a lot of national and international competitions. Alcamo is also the principal centre of the Costa Gaia International Trophy, a youth football kermess in which a lot of titled teams take part and where many great players of the bigger championships have been the protagonists.

Basketball is also popular, today with better results than football anyway. [ citation needed ] The female team Basket Alcamo (Gea Magazzini) which has obtained important results in its history (a long participation in A1 League and the final match in the Ronchetti Cup), has played in the A2 League for eleven years, and has regained the major league in the season 2011–2012. The male team has also obtained good results, but not at the same levels.

The local handball team, Pallamano Alcamo plays its home matches at the Palasport Enzo D'Angelo.

Sport facilities Edit

The town has got several sport facilities, the most important are the stadium Lelio Catella (with a capacity of about 10,000 people) for football and athletics, the Palazzetto dello Sport (sports hall) Tre Santi for Basket and the Palasport Enzo D'Angelo (an indoor stadium) for handball.

There is a private swimpool open to public use (La Fenice) where young boys (who have won National prizes) train regularly. In the same facility there is an ice-skating rink. When Alcamo football team played in League C, the home matches were played at stadium Don Rizzo, which together with Sant'Ippolito stadium, is now used by juvenile and minor teams.


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